Studies of territorial and courtship behavior are lacking for many tropical raptors. From 2006 to 2009, using observations that were not time-limited, we studied the territorial and courtship behaviors of the White-necked Hawk (Buteogallus lacernulatus) and the Mantled Hawk (Pseudastur polionotus) in Rio Doce State Park in eastern Brazil. We observed White-necked Hawks and Mantled Hawks engaged in aerial displays on 67 and 13 occasions, respectively. Display behaviors performed by White-necked Hawks were characterized by 1–4 undulations followed by aerial swoops and spirals. Territorial and/or courtship behaviors of Mantled Hawks were characterized by the male and female performing thermal or horizontal gliding together and diving in spirals while frequently emitting a series of long and short whistles. This study presents the first formal descriptions of the aerial territorial/courtship displays of these rare forest-dwelling raptors.

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