Human-dominated landscapes, including urban environments, are expanding globally, replacing natural habitats, and causing declines in species richness and diversity (McKinney 2008). Although many species cannot tolerate urban environments, several others persist and even thrive where human-dominated landscapes offer novel foods, novel nest substrates, and often reduced pressure from native predators (Bonier et al. 2007). However, living in urban environments also creates challenges for wildlife, including potential exposure to introduced species of competitors and predators (Møller 2008), the need to find and recognize alternative food resources (Jones and Reynolds 2008), and the need to endure novel climatic and environmental conditions (Lowry et al. 2013). Birds living in urban environments need substantial behavioral flexibility to use novel sites, structures, and materials to build their nests (Reynolds et al. 2019).

Although many raptors are particularly vulnerable to environmental change, such as...