Vultures are among the most threatened species in Africa, with several critically endangered species surviving mainly or only in protected areas. West African vulture declines are correlated with steep losses of natural habitat and mammalian wildlife. Major factors driving vulture extirpations include wildlife trade for traditional medicine, belief-based rituals, and bushmeat. Current data on vulture abundance and breeding ecology are crucial for conservation but lacking in many countries, including Ghana. Between 2020 and 2022, we conducted 761 km of surveys for critically endangered vultures in Mole National Park (Mole NP), a 4840 km2 protected savanna in northern Ghana. Using our count data, we estimated populations of 29–36 Hooded Vultures (Necrosyrtes monachus), 25–73 White-backed Vultures (Gyps africanus), and 3–4 White-headed Vultures (Trigonoceps occipitalis) in the southern region of Mole NP. We also documented 17 occupied vulture nests, including six Hooded Vulture nests, 10 White-backed Vulture nests, and one White-headed Vulture nest. Our findings include the first nest records for Hooded Vultures in Mole NP, the first nest description of White-backed Vultures in Ghana, and the first nest records for White-headed Vultures in Ghana, confirming the importance of Mole NP for conserving critically endangered vultures. Reducing poaching, preventing the killing of vultures for wildlife trade, and protecting vulture habitat and food resources will be paramount to the survival of critically endangered vultures in Ghana and West Africa.

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