Acoustic communication, such as bird song, is vital in animal ecology, facilitating reproduction, feeding, defense, and more. Variation in bird song may result from adaptation to environmental features such as anthropogenic noise. The vocal repertoire of raptors is essentially unstudied, particularly in urban environments. The aim of this work was to describe and quantify the acoustic repertoire of Chimango Caracaras (Milvago chimango) in rural and urban areas in La Pampa Province, Argentina. I recorded 26 1-min sound samples at each of four breeding colonies (one rural and three urban) during the austral reproductive season of 2021–2022. I recorded 241 vocalizations corresponding to nine clearly distinct call types. Two types of calls made up 50.6% and 19.5% of the vocalizations and seven others made up <10.0% each. Three call types had trills (fast repetitive notes). Average percentage of call types differed significantly between the two habitats (P < 0.01), with more trills produced in rural habitats. Average calling rate was 6.6 ± 5.1 calls/min at rural colonies and 10.7 ± 10.7 at urban colonies. The number of different call types produced was 2.1 ± 1.6 types/min at rural colonies and 2.7 ± 1.8 at urban colonies. The greater calling rate of Chimango Caracaras in urban areas may represent an attempt to improve signal effectiveness among the anthropogenic acoustic clutter.

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