Slipping wheel theory has been extended to predict the dependence of the lateral force and of the aligning torque on the nature of the pressure distribution over the contact patch between the wheel and the ground. Expressions have been derived for both side force and aligning torque as functions of the slip angle under: uniform pressure distribution, which applies to the behavior of an inflated membrane wheel; elliptical distribution, which describes the behavior of a solid wheel; and parabolic distribution. All appear appropriate in some respect to the actual tire.

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