In order to achieve good mixing of elastomer and carbon black, the elastomer domains must be reduced in size, that is, the elastomer must be broken into smaller pieces. If this is the only requirement, Region I of the Tokita-White scheme may be most preferred, because the elastomer easily breaks up at this state. However, it is too stiff for compaction of the compound; that is, the elastomer is too stiff to conform to the complex topology of carbon black. If the compaction is the only requirement. Region IV is most preferred, because the material is in the melt-flow state. In reality, Region II, the rubbery, highly stretchable state gives the best result. It appears that the use of Region II is a compromise. However, there is a more important reason for the preference of Region II, that is, the effectiveness of this region for the breakdown of carbon black agglomerates. The breakdown mechanism involves elastomer as a medium for the transfer of force. The effectiveness of the elastomer medium depends on its ability to stretch with the development and maintenance of a high stress. The former may be characterized by the failure envelop and the latter by the stress relaxation experiments. In roll mill as well as internal mixer processing, the folding of compound and the subsequent stretching of it, e.g., lamination mechanism, are the effective means for carbon black dispersion. It is postulated that the lamination mechanism generates localized high shear fields, which force carbon black agglomerates to rotate in the high modulus medium; this results in peeling of the aggregates from the outer shells of the agglomerates.

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