Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electric force microscopy (EFM) have been applied for compositional mapping of a number of elastomers and related multicomponent materials. Several aspects of optimizing AFM experiments on polymers are discussed. AFM images revealed changes of EPDM morphology caused by crosslinking and by loading with fillers [carbon black (CB) and silica particles] and oil. It was shown that the morphology of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/EPDM vulcanizates, which were studied with AFM and EFM, depends on the ratio of components, degree of cure and processing conditions. Diffusion of oil from the elastomer component to the matrix is evidenced in the AFM images. Selective distribution of CB in the iPP matrix is responsible for the electric conductivity of the thermoplastic vulcanizate.