Polymer nanocomposite is one of the highly discussed research topics in recent time. In this paper, we have reported the preparation and the properties of different nanoclays based on sodium montmorillonite, bentonite and potassium montmorillonite and organic amines of varying chain lengths, and Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)-clay nanocomposites. The clays and the rubber nanocomposites have been characterized with the help of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). X-ray results suggest that the intergallery distance is increased by incorporation of various amines. There is a great improvement in mechanical properties like tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, work to break, and hysteresis on incorporation of nanoclay in SBR. TEM photographs show exfoliation of the clays in rubber to 5–10 nm range. The X-ray diffraction peak observed in the range of 3°– 10° for the control and the modified clays also disappears in rubber nanocomposites. Increasing chain length of clay modifiers and loading and nature of clays affect the mechanical and thermal properties significantly.