As environmental friendly alternative to the halogenation treatment with trichloro isocyanuric acid solutions in organic solvents (TCI/MEK), in this study a water-based surface treatment for rubber materials based in chloramine T aqueous solutions has been proposed. It was found that the effectiveness of chloramine T (CT) (N-chloro-sodium-p-toluenesulphenamide) as chlorinating agent for rubber depends on the pH of the chlorinating solution. The surface modifications and adhesion in one SBS rubber treated with aqueous solutions of CT has been studied. Acidification of CT aqueous solutions produced the formation of dichloramine T (DCT) and hypochlorous acid (HClO), species which reacted with C = C bonds of the butadiene units. A decrease in the pH of the CT aqueous solutions produced more extended surface modifications and improved adhesion properties in the joints produced with chlorinated SBS rubber and waterborne polyurethane adhesive. T-peel strength values obtained were slightly lower than those obtained for the SBS rubber surface treated with the organic solvent chlorinating system (TCI/MEK). The solvent effect leading to local swelling and therefore to deeper modifications in the rubber near surface properties was not present with water based solutions, and then, the modifications were much more superficial. On the other hand, acidification with hydrochloric acid produces deposition of NaCl crystals on the SBS rubber surface. Thus, acidification of the chloramines T solution with sulfuric acid was preferable.