In recent years, the application of sol-gel science to industrial polymer research has offered advancements in rubber technology. The use of sol-gel–synthesized materials for the development of highly reinforced rubber composites is the most commonly adopted and popular method exercised by rubber scientists. This article comprehensively reviews the recent progress regarding preparation and properties of sol-gel–synthesized nanoparticles-based rubber composites. The pragmatic consequences of sol-gel–synthesized nanoparticles in rubber compounds are systematically described through rheological, mechanical, and thermal properties. Emphatic focus is given to understanding the reinforcement mechanism of rubber composites by the use of sol-gel–derived alkoxide silica as filler. The properties of rubber nanocomposites are usually dependent on the dispersion of sol-gel–synthesized nanoparticles into the rubber matrix. The results reviewed from prolific studies suggested that sol-gel science has tremendous potential to develop high performance rubber nanocomposites for future industrial application.