Optimizing the maintenance cycles of rubber-lined components is of great importance. Especially for the industry sectors operating under demanding conditions, challenges in the lifetime evaluation of rubber linings may cause apparent premature failures. Thus, understanding the effect of environmental factors on the performance and durability of rubber linings, as well as on the weakest links of the structure in certain environments, is essential. In this study, we investigate the performance of bromobutyl rubber and rubber–steel interfaces after exposure to different environments, namely, high temperature (95 °C), moisture (95% relative humidity and immersion), and sulfuric acid (solution with 75 g/L of acid). The weakest link of the rubber–metal structure and, consequently, the location of the fracture were mostly within the adhesive layer or at the primer–metal interface. However, the most degraded component of the adhesive system depends on the aging environments.