To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, metal-organic framework (MOF), a porous reticular structure, has been tried as a reinforcing filler for rubber. A MOF synthesized by solvothermal reaction between 2-aminoterephthalic acid and aluminum chloride hexahydrate was characterized and incorporated as reinforcing filler in SBR. A comparative investigation on the properties of the well-dispersed, thermally stable nano-MOF composite (SBR-MOF) was carried out with reference to SBR–nano alumina composite (SBR-nAl). The SBR-MOF was mechanically more robust than SBR-nAl. The SBR-MOF showed 130% improvement in tensile strength over the pristine SBR composite and 50% better elongation at break than SBR-nAl at 10 phr loading. The thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of SBR-MOF are superior to SBR-nAl composite. The highly porous organic framework was favorable for the enhanced entanglement of polymer chains at the interface. The effectiveness of the organic framework on the dispersion and compatibility was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The dispersion studies substantially supported the overall property enhancement. To substantiate the superiority of MOF in the rubber matrix, the tensile properties of SBR-MOF were compared with SBR composites filled with nano silica, nano titania, as well as nano silica and nano alumina with a compatibilizer, thereby documenting a promising nanofiller for introduction into the rubber industry.