The Monomoy Islands, Barnstable County, Massachusetts, were surveyed for vascular plants from September 2010 through September 2012. The islands' flora, 1954 to 2012, is comprised of 71 families, 181 genera, and 283 species, of which 227 species (80%) are native and 56 species (20%) are non-native. The most species-rich families are Asteraceae (40 spp.), Cyperaceae (32 spp.), and Poaceae (31 spp.). The largest genera are Carex (13 spp.), Juncus (11 spp.), and Eleocharis (6 spp.). Floristic studies of five earlier investigators are also discussed. During the past 60 years the islands' flora has continually changed partially in response to a dynamic landscape repeatedly impacted by hurricanes and other severe coastal storms. Seventy two species (26% of the flora) have been reported from the islands by only one author, thus reflecting a changing flora with many species being established for relatively short periods (less than a decade or two) before becoming extirpated.

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