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Invertebrates dominate both terrestrial and aquatic environments in terms of their diversity, yet few have been listed as threatened. Does this really mean that few species are threatened, or is it more likely that we just do not know enough about invertebrate populations? Realistically, given the slow acquisition of knowledge of invertebrates in Australia, it is argued that listing of invertebrates is suitable only for “iconic” species in order to raise community awareness. A more effective avenue is the conservation of habitats or communities for invertebrates as well as the implementation of legislation to identify and tackle key threatening processes. Until both the public and scientific community become aware of the importance of invertebrates in ecosystem functioning, there will be little pressure on conservation agencies to conserve invertebrates.

Allen, J. T. 1999. Building pathways for marine invertebrate conservation. Pp 407-412 in The Other 99%. Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Akçakaya, H. R., Ferson, S., Burgman, M. A., Keith, D. A., Mace, G. M., and Todd, C. A. 2000. Making consistent classifications under uncertainty. Conservation Biology 14: 1001-1013.
Baker, J. 2003. A report on the study of land sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. A report prepared by an Intergovernmental Steering Committee to Premiers Department, Queensland Government ww.premiers.qld.gov.au/about/reefwater.pdf
Baker, J. 2004. Endangered populations: the concept in practice. Pp 82-87 in Threatened Species legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Blakemore, R. J. 1999. The diversity of exotic earthworms in Australia - a status report. Pp 182-187 in The Other 99%” Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman NSW.
Campbell, A. J. and Tanton, M. T. 1981. Effects of fire on the invertebrate fauna of soil and litter of a eucalypt forest. Pp 215-241 in Fire and the Australian Biota, edited by A.M Gill, R. H. Groves and J.R Noble. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
Cane, J. H. 2001. Habitat fragmentation and native bees: a premature verdict? Conservation Ecology 5(1): 3 [online]. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art3
Cane, J. H. and Tepedino, V. J. 2001. Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence, and consequences. Conservation Ecology 5(1): 1 [online]. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art1
Clark, S. A. 2004. Native snails in an urban environmentconservation from the ground up. Pp 78-81 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Clark, S. A. in prep. Systematics, spatial analysis and conservation genetics of Meridolum corneovirens and related forms (Gastropoda: Cameridae) from the Sydney Region of Australia. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury.
Clark, S.A, and Richardson, B. J. 2002. Spatial analysis of genetic variation as a rapid asssessment tool in the management of narrow range endemics. Invertebrate Systematics 16(4): 583-587.
Denny, M. 2004. Struggling with the Act- some observations by ecological consultants. Pp 164-171 in Threatened Species legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Dexter E. M. and Kitching R. L. 1991 Nomination for the Register of the National Estate. Australian Heritage Commission (unpublished report).
Fairfull, S. J. and Williams, R. J. 2003. Community involvement in natural resource management: lessons for future water management in coastal catchments of New South Wales. Pp 55-61 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Horwitz, P., Recher, H. and Majer, J. 1999. Putting invertebrates on the agenda: political and bureaucratic challenges. Pp 398-406 in The Other 99%. Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates edited, by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Mosman NSW.
Hutchings, P. A. and Karageorgopoulos, P. 2003. Designation of a neotype of Marphysa sanguinea (Montague, 1815) and a description of a new species of Marphysa from Eastern Australia. Hydrobiologia 496(1-3): 87-94.
Hutchings, P. and Ponder, W. 1999. Criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates. Pp 297-315. A summary of a workshop held in conjunction with the Other 99% Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Haynes, D., Ralph, P., Prange, J. and Dennison, B. 2000. The impact of the herbicide diuron on photosynthesis in three species of tropical seagrasses. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41, 288-293.
Leys, A. 2004. Threat abatement plans: strategic pest management for biodiversity conservation. Pp 102-106 in Threatened Species legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp 1-132. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Nally, S. C. 2004. Community involvement in the conservation of the endangered purple copper butterfly, Paralucia spinifera Edwards & Common (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series No. 7: 39-49.
New, T. R. 1995 An introduction to Invertebrate Conservation Biology. Oxford University Press. Oxford UK 194pp.
Ponder, W. F. 1995. Mound spring snails of the Australian Great Artesian Basin. Pp 13-18. In The conservation biology of molluscs, edited by E. A. Kay. IUCN, Gland Switzerland.
Ponder, W. F. 1997. Conservation status, threats and habitat requirements of Australian terrestrial and freshwater Mollusca. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 421-430.
Ponder, W. F. 2004. Endemic aquatic macroinvertebrates of artesian springs of the Great Artesian Basin - progress and future directions. Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series No. 7: 101-110.
Ponder, W. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Chapman, R. 2002. Overview of the Conservation of Australia's marine invertebrates. A report for Environment Australia. http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Sanchez-De Leon, Y., Zou, Z., Borges, S. and Ruan, H. 2003. Recovery of Native Earthworms in Abandoned Tropical Pastures. Conservation Biology 17: 999-1006.
Snelgrove, P., Blackburn, T., Hutchings, P. A., Alongi, D. M., Grassle, J. F., Hummel, H., King, G., Koike, I., Lambshead, P. J. D., Ramsing, N. B. and Solis-Weiss, V. 1997. The importance of marine sediment biodiversity in ecosystem processes. Ambio 26: 578-583.
Stork, N. E. 1999. Estimating the number of species on Earth. Pp 1-7 in The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Tozer, M. 2003. The native vegetation of the Cumberland Plain, western Sydney: systematic classification and field identification of communities. Cunninghamia 8: 1-75.
Tulau, M. 1999. Management of acid sulphate soils in New South Wales-Policy, organization, and regulation. The Australasian Journal of Natural Resources Law and Policy 6 (1), 1-32.
Wall, D. H., Blackburn, T., Brussaard, L., Hutchings, P. A., Palmer, M. A. and Snelgrove, P. V. R. 1997. Linking biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of soils and sediments. Ambio 26: 556-562.
Ward, T. and Hutchings, P. A. 1996. Effects of zinc, lead and cadmium on the species composition of the infauna of polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediments near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, SA. Journal of Experimental Marine Ecology Progress Series 135: 123-135.
Yen, A. and Butcher, B. 1997 An overview of the conservation of non-marine Invertebrates in Australia. Environment Australia, Canberra.
World Conservation Union (IUCN) 2001. Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Species Survival Commission IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge UK.
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References

Allen, J. T. 1999. Building pathways for marine invertebrate conservation. Pp 407-412 in The Other 99%. Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Akçakaya, H. R., Ferson, S., Burgman, M. A., Keith, D. A., Mace, G. M., and Todd, C. A. 2000. Making consistent classifications under uncertainty. Conservation Biology 14: 1001-1013.
Baker, J. 2003. A report on the study of land sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. A report prepared by an Intergovernmental Steering Committee to Premiers Department, Queensland Government ww.premiers.qld.gov.au/about/reefwater.pdf
Baker, J. 2004. Endangered populations: the concept in practice. Pp 82-87 in Threatened Species legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Blakemore, R. J. 1999. The diversity of exotic earthworms in Australia - a status report. Pp 182-187 in The Other 99%” Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman NSW.
Campbell, A. J. and Tanton, M. T. 1981. Effects of fire on the invertebrate fauna of soil and litter of a eucalypt forest. Pp 215-241 in Fire and the Australian Biota, edited by A.M Gill, R. H. Groves and J.R Noble. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra.
Cane, J. H. 2001. Habitat fragmentation and native bees: a premature verdict? Conservation Ecology 5(1): 3 [online]. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art3
Cane, J. H. and Tepedino, V. J. 2001. Causes and extent of declines among native North American invertebrate pollinators: detection, evidence, and consequences. Conservation Ecology 5(1): 1 [online]. http://www.consecol.org/vol5/iss1/art1
Clark, S. A. 2004. Native snails in an urban environmentconservation from the ground up. Pp 78-81 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Clark, S. A. in prep. Systematics, spatial analysis and conservation genetics of Meridolum corneovirens and related forms (Gastropoda: Cameridae) from the Sydney Region of Australia. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury.
Clark, S.A, and Richardson, B. J. 2002. Spatial analysis of genetic variation as a rapid asssessment tool in the management of narrow range endemics. Invertebrate Systematics 16(4): 583-587.
Denny, M. 2004. Struggling with the Act- some observations by ecological consultants. Pp 164-171 in Threatened Species legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Dexter E. M. and Kitching R. L. 1991 Nomination for the Register of the National Estate. Australian Heritage Commission (unpublished report).
Fairfull, S. J. and Williams, R. J. 2003. Community involvement in natural resource management: lessons for future water management in coastal catchments of New South Wales. Pp 55-61 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Horwitz, P., Recher, H. and Majer, J. 1999. Putting invertebrates on the agenda: political and bureaucratic challenges. Pp 398-406 in The Other 99%. Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates edited, by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Mosman NSW.
Hutchings, P. A. and Karageorgopoulos, P. 2003. Designation of a neotype of Marphysa sanguinea (Montague, 1815) and a description of a new species of Marphysa from Eastern Australia. Hydrobiologia 496(1-3): 87-94.
Hutchings, P. and Ponder, W. 1999. Criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates. Pp 297-315. A summary of a workshop held in conjunction with the Other 99% Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Haynes, D., Ralph, P., Prange, J. and Dennison, B. 2000. The impact of the herbicide diuron on photosynthesis in three species of tropical seagrasses. Marine Pollution Bulletin 41, 288-293.
Leys, A. 2004. Threat abatement plans: strategic pest management for biodiversity conservation. Pp 102-106 in Threatened Species legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp 1-132. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Nally, S. C. 2004. Community involvement in the conservation of the endangered purple copper butterfly, Paralucia spinifera Edwards & Common (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series No. 7: 39-49.
New, T. R. 1995 An introduction to Invertebrate Conservation Biology. Oxford University Press. Oxford UK 194pp.
Ponder, W. F. 1995. Mound spring snails of the Australian Great Artesian Basin. Pp 13-18. In The conservation biology of molluscs, edited by E. A. Kay. IUCN, Gland Switzerland.
Ponder, W. F. 1997. Conservation status, threats and habitat requirements of Australian terrestrial and freshwater Mollusca. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 421-430.
Ponder, W. F. 2004. Endemic aquatic macroinvertebrates of artesian springs of the Great Artesian Basin - progress and future directions. Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series No. 7: 101-110.
Ponder, W. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Chapman, R. 2002. Overview of the Conservation of Australia's marine invertebrates. A report for Environment Australia. http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Sanchez-De Leon, Y., Zou, Z., Borges, S. and Ruan, H. 2003. Recovery of Native Earthworms in Abandoned Tropical Pastures. Conservation Biology 17: 999-1006.
Snelgrove, P., Blackburn, T., Hutchings, P. A., Alongi, D. M., Grassle, J. F., Hummel, H., King, G., Koike, I., Lambshead, P. J. D., Ramsing, N. B. and Solis-Weiss, V. 1997. The importance of marine sediment biodiversity in ecosystem processes. Ambio 26: 578-583.
Stork, N. E. 1999. Estimating the number of species on Earth. Pp 1-7 in The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Tozer, M. 2003. The native vegetation of the Cumberland Plain, western Sydney: systematic classification and field identification of communities. Cunninghamia 8: 1-75.
Tulau, M. 1999. Management of acid sulphate soils in New South Wales-Policy, organization, and regulation. The Australasian Journal of Natural Resources Law and Policy 6 (1), 1-32.
Wall, D. H., Blackburn, T., Brussaard, L., Hutchings, P. A., Palmer, M. A. and Snelgrove, P. V. R. 1997. Linking biodiversity and ecosystem functioning of soils and sediments. Ambio 26: 556-562.
Ward, T. and Hutchings, P. A. 1996. Effects of zinc, lead and cadmium on the species composition of the infauna of polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediments near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, SA. Journal of Experimental Marine Ecology Progress Series 135: 123-135.
Yen, A. and Butcher, B. 1997 An overview of the conservation of non-marine Invertebrates in Australia. Environment Australia, Canberra.
World Conservation Union (IUCN) 2001. Red List categories and criteria, version 3.1. Species Survival Commission IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge UK.
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