Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

The difficulties in applying threatened species legislation, which has a general vertebrate and vascular plant focus, to invertebrates, have been widely recognised. Nevertheless, such legislation provides valuable opportunities to promote invertebrate conservation that were previously available only for high profile, charismatic vertebrate species. This paper presents three case studies, two land snails Lord Howe Placostylus Placostylus bivaricosus and Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae, and the lepidopteran Purple Copper Butterfly Paralucia spinifera, to demonstrate some of the achievements of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 in this regard, including significant increases in the known range of the species, reduction of threatening processes at key sites, improved understanding of the species' ecology, consideration of the species in land use planning decisions, involvement of local communities in recovery programs and an increase in community awareness of broader invertebrate conservation issues. The Act can be effective as one of a range of tools to positively promote and build support for invertebrate conservation in the public arena.

Abbott, R. T. 1989 Compendium of landshells. American Malacologists Inc., Burlington MA.
Billing, J. 1999. The management of introduced rodents on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report by Lord Howe Island Board, Lord Howe Island.
Bishop, M. J. 1978. A revision of the genus Thersites Pfieffer (Pulmonata: Camaenidae). Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 4(1-2): 9-21.
Bishop, M. J. 1981. The biogeography and evolution of Australian land snails. Pp. 925-54 in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.
Braby, M. F. 2000 Butterflies of Australia (Vol. 1 & 2). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Brazier, J. 1889. Mollusca. In Etheridge, R. The general zoology of Lord Howe Island; containing also an account of the collections made by the Australian Museum collecting party, Aug.-Sept., 1887. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 2: 1-42.
Cassis, G. (ed.). 1999. Workshop: putting invertebrates on the agenda: opportunities for the future. Pp. 437-45 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Cayzer, L. W., Crisp, M. D., and Telford, I. R. H. 1999 Bursaria (Pittosporaceae): a Morphometric Analysis and Revision. Aust. Sys. Bot. 12: 117-143.
Clarke, G. M. and Grosse, S. P. 2002. Genetic Analysis of Populations of the Bathurst Copper Butterfly, Paralucia spinifera. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Central Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Hurstville, NSW.
Colgan, D. J. and Ponder, W. F. 2001. Preliminary Assessment of the Genetics of Placostylus bivaricosus on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Dunn, K. L., Kitching, R. L. and Dexter, E. M. 1994. The Conservation Status of Australian Butterflies. Unpublished report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra, ACT.
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd. 2003. Habitat Modelling for the Bathurst Copper Butterfly ( Paralucia spinifera) (Project No. 01-12). Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Central Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Hurstville, NSW.
Greenslade, P. 1999. What entomologists think about listing species for protection: a survey of butterfly specialists in Australia. Pp. 345-49 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Gunning, R. V. 1999. New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; the invertebrate experience so far. Pp. 350-53 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Guy, S. 2004. New Caledonia: bon appetit.Qantas: The Australian Way (Qantas in-flight magazine) March 2004: 36-40.
Hedley, C. 1891. The land and freshwater snails of Lord Howe Island. Records of the Australian Museum 1: 134-144.
Hedley, C. 1893. On the relation of the flora and fauna of Australia to those of New Zealand. Natural Science 3 (1893): 187-191.
Heywood, V. H. and Iriondo, J. M. 2003. Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biological Conservation 113: 321-335.
Hnatiuk, R. 2003. Classification of Plant Communities. Chapter 14 (pp. 212-229) in Ecology: An Australian Perspective, edited by P. Attiwill and B. Wilson. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Victoria.
Horwitz, P., Recher, H. and J. Majer. 1999. Putting invertebrates on the agenda: political and bureaucratic challenges. Pp. 398-406 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hutchings, P. 2004. Invertebrates and threatened species legislation. Pp 88-93 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hutchings, P. and Ponder, W. F. (eds) 1999. Workshop: criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates. Pp. 297-315 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hutton, I. 1990 Birds of Lord Howe Island. Published by the author, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission. 2003 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Iredale, T. 1944. The land Mollusca of Lord Howe Island. Australian Zoologist 10(3): 299-334.
Kitching, R. L. 1999. Adapting conservation legislation to the idiosyncrasies of the arthropods. Pp. 274-82 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. 1999. Policy lessons from the 1%. Pp. 290-296 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Mawson, P., R. and J. D. Majer. 1999. The Western Australian Threatened Species Scientific Committee: lessons from invertebrates. Pp. 369-73 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Murphy, M. J. 2002a. Mollusc conservation and the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995: the recovery program for Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae.Australian Zoologist 32: 1-11.
Murphy, M. J. 2002b. Observations on the behaviour of the Australian land snail Hedleyella falconeri (Gray, 1834) (Pulmonata: Caryodidae) using the spool-and-line tracking technique. Molluscan Research 22: 149-164.
Nally, S. 2003. Community involvement in the conservation of the endangered purple copper butterfly (Paralucia spinifera E. D. Edwards & Common, Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series No.7: 217-224.
New, T. R. 1995 An Introduction to Invertebrate Conservation Biology. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 194 pp.
New, T. R. 1999. Descriptive taxonomy as a facilitating discipline in invertebrate conservation. Pp. 154-158 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001a Lord Howe Placostylus Placostylus bivaricosus (Gaskoin, 1855) Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001b Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae (Cox, 1864) Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001c Declaration of Critical Habitat for Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae in Stotts Island Nature Reserve. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001d Bathurst Copper Butterfly (Paralucia spinifera ) Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2002. Predictive Habitat Modelling of the Lord Howe Placostylus Placostylus bivaricosus on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report prepared by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2003 Mitch the Rainforest Snail Teacher Resource Book. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1996. Final determination to list Paralucia spinifera as an endangered species under Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1997a. Final determination to list Placostylus bivaricosus as an endangered species on Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1997b. Final determination to list Thersites mitchellae as an endangered species on Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2000. Final determination to list predation from the Ship Rat Rattus rattus on Lord Howe Island as a key threatening process on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2001a. Final determination to list clearing of native vegetation as a key threatening process on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2001b. Final determination to list loss and/or degradation of sites used for hill-topping by butterflies as a key threatening process on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2004. Final determination to list the Lord Howe Island wood-feeding cockroach Panesthia lata as an endangered species on Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
Parrish, R., Sherley, G. and Aviss, M. 1995 Giant Land Snail Recovery Plan Placostylus spp., Paryphanta sp. Threatened Species Recovery Plan Series No. 13. Threatened Species Unit, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
Pickard, J. 1983. Vegetation of Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia 1(2): 133-266.
Ponder, W. F. 1997. Conservation status, threats and habitat requirements of Australian terrestrial and freshwater Mollusca. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 421-430.
Ponder, W. F. 2000. Understanding molluscan diversity in our region - past progress and future directions. Molluscs 2000 Symposium Abstracts. Pp. 69-71. Malacological Society of Australasia, Sydney, NSW.
Ponder, W. F. and Chapman, R. 1999. Survey of the Land Snail Placostylus bivaricosus on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Ponder, W. F., Colgan, D. J., Gleeson, D. M. and Sherley, G. 2003. Relationships of Placostylus from Lord Howe Island: an investigation using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. Molluscan Research 23(2): 159-178.
Salas, M., Bonnaut, C., Le Bel, S. and Chardonnet, L. 1997. Activity and food intake of captive Placostylus fibratus (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) in New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 257-264.
Sands, D. P. A. 1999. Conservation status of Lepidoptera: assessment, threatening processes and recovery actions. Pp. 382-87 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Sands, D. P. A. and New, T. R. 2002 The Action Plan for Australian Butterflies. Environment Australia, Canberra ACT.
Sherley, G. 1994. Translocations of the Mahoenui Giant Weta Deinacrida n. sp. and Placostylus land snails in New Zealand: what have we learnt? Chapter 11 (pp. 57-64) in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna, edited by M. Serena. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, NSW.
Sherley, G., Stringer, I. A. N., Parrish, G. R. and Flux, I. 1998. Demography of two land snail populations ( Placostylus ambagiosus, Pulmonata, Bulimulidae) in relation to predator control in the far north of New Zealand. Biological Conservation 84: 83-88.
Smith, B. J. 1992 Non-marine Mollusca. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 8. CSIRO Publishing/ABRS: Melbourne Victoria.
Smithers, C. McAlpine, D., Colman, P. and Gray, M. 1977 Island Invertebrates. Pp. 23-26 in Lord Howe Island. Published by the Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Stanisic, J. 1994. The distribution and patterns of species diversity of land snails in eastern Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 36(1): 207-214.
Stanisic, J. 1997. An area of exceptional land snail diversity: the Macleay Valley, north-eastern New South Wales. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 441-448.
Stanisic, J. 1998. Survey for Land Snail Thersites mitchellae in Northern New South Wales. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Stanisic, J. 1999. Survey for Land Snail Thersites mitchellae in Northern New South Wales II. Investigation of Wilsons Creek locality. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Stanisic, J. 2000. Survey for Land Snail Thersites mitchellae in Northern New South Wales III. Investigation of Stotts Island locality. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Stork, N. E. 1999. Estimating the number of species on Earth. Pp. 1-7 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Sutherland, L. and Ritchie, A. 1977. Defunct volcanoes and extinct horned turtles. Pages 7-12 in Lord Howe Island. Published by the Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Van Praagh, B. D. 1997. Conservation of native earthworms and the role of the Giant Gippsland earthworm as a flagship taxon. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 597-603.
Yen, A. L., New, T. R., Van Praagh, B. D. and Vaughan, P. J. 1990. Invertebrate conservation: three case studies in southeastern Australia. Pp. 207-224 in Management and Conservation of Small Populations, edited by T. W. Clark and J. H. Seebeck. Chicago Zoological Society, Illinois, USA.
Yen, A. L. and Butcher, R. J. 1997 An Overview of the Conservation of Non-marine Invertebrates in Australia. Endangered Species Program, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Abbott, R. T. 1989 Compendium of landshells. American Malacologists Inc., Burlington MA.
Billing, J. 1999. The management of introduced rodents on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report by Lord Howe Island Board, Lord Howe Island.
Bishop, M. J. 1978. A revision of the genus Thersites Pfieffer (Pulmonata: Camaenidae). Journal of the Malacological Society of Australia 4(1-2): 9-21.
Bishop, M. J. 1981. The biogeography and evolution of Australian land snails. Pp. 925-54 in Ecological Biogeography of Australia, edited by A. Keast. Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.
Braby, M. F. 2000 Butterflies of Australia (Vol. 1 & 2). CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Brazier, J. 1889. Mollusca. In Etheridge, R. The general zoology of Lord Howe Island; containing also an account of the collections made by the Australian Museum collecting party, Aug.-Sept., 1887. Memoirs of the Australian Museum 2: 1-42.
Cassis, G. (ed.). 1999. Workshop: putting invertebrates on the agenda: opportunities for the future. Pp. 437-45 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Cayzer, L. W., Crisp, M. D., and Telford, I. R. H. 1999 Bursaria (Pittosporaceae): a Morphometric Analysis and Revision. Aust. Sys. Bot. 12: 117-143.
Clarke, G. M. and Grosse, S. P. 2002. Genetic Analysis of Populations of the Bathurst Copper Butterfly, Paralucia spinifera. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Central Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Hurstville, NSW.
Colgan, D. J. and Ponder, W. F. 2001. Preliminary Assessment of the Genetics of Placostylus bivaricosus on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Dunn, K. L., Kitching, R. L. and Dexter, E. M. 1994. The Conservation Status of Australian Butterflies. Unpublished report to the Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra, ACT.
Eco Logical Australia Pty Ltd. 2003. Habitat Modelling for the Bathurst Copper Butterfly ( Paralucia spinifera) (Project No. 01-12). Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Central Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Hurstville, NSW.
Greenslade, P. 1999. What entomologists think about listing species for protection: a survey of butterfly specialists in Australia. Pp. 345-49 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Gunning, R. V. 1999. New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995; the invertebrate experience so far. Pp. 350-53 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Guy, S. 2004. New Caledonia: bon appetit.Qantas: The Australian Way (Qantas in-flight magazine) March 2004: 36-40.
Hedley, C. 1891. The land and freshwater snails of Lord Howe Island. Records of the Australian Museum 1: 134-144.
Hedley, C. 1893. On the relation of the flora and fauna of Australia to those of New Zealand. Natural Science 3 (1893): 187-191.
Heywood, V. H. and Iriondo, J. M. 2003. Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biological Conservation 113: 321-335.
Hnatiuk, R. 2003. Classification of Plant Communities. Chapter 14 (pp. 212-229) in Ecology: An Australian Perspective, edited by P. Attiwill and B. Wilson. Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Victoria.
Horwitz, P., Recher, H. and J. Majer. 1999. Putting invertebrates on the agenda: political and bureaucratic challenges. Pp. 398-406 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hutchings, P. 2004. Invertebrates and threatened species legislation. Pp 88-93 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an Act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hutchings, P. and Ponder, W. F. (eds) 1999. Workshop: criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates. Pp. 297-315 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hutton, I. 1990 Birds of Lord Howe Island. Published by the author, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
International Union for the Conservation of Nature Species Survival Commission. 2003 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland.
Iredale, T. 1944. The land Mollusca of Lord Howe Island. Australian Zoologist 10(3): 299-334.
Kitching, R. L. 1999. Adapting conservation legislation to the idiosyncrasies of the arthropods. Pp. 274-82 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. 1999. Policy lessons from the 1%. Pp. 290-296 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Mawson, P., R. and J. D. Majer. 1999. The Western Australian Threatened Species Scientific Committee: lessons from invertebrates. Pp. 369-73 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Murphy, M. J. 2002a. Mollusc conservation and the New South Wales Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995: the recovery program for Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae.Australian Zoologist 32: 1-11.
Murphy, M. J. 2002b. Observations on the behaviour of the Australian land snail Hedleyella falconeri (Gray, 1834) (Pulmonata: Caryodidae) using the spool-and-line tracking technique. Molluscan Research 22: 149-164.
Nally, S. 2003. Community involvement in the conservation of the endangered purple copper butterfly (Paralucia spinifera E. D. Edwards & Common, Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Records of the South Australian Museum Monograph Series No.7: 217-224.
New, T. R. 1995 An Introduction to Invertebrate Conservation Biology. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. 194 pp.
New, T. R. 1999. Descriptive taxonomy as a facilitating discipline in invertebrate conservation. Pp. 154-158 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001a Lord Howe Placostylus Placostylus bivaricosus (Gaskoin, 1855) Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001b Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae (Cox, 1864) Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001c Declaration of Critical Habitat for Mitchell's Rainforest Snail Thersites mitchellae in Stotts Island Nature Reserve. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001d Bathurst Copper Butterfly (Paralucia spinifera ) Recovery Plan. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2002. Predictive Habitat Modelling of the Lord Howe Placostylus Placostylus bivaricosus on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report prepared by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 2003 Mitch the Rainforest Snail Teacher Resource Book. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1996. Final determination to list Paralucia spinifera as an endangered species under Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1997a. Final determination to list Placostylus bivaricosus as an endangered species on Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 1997b. Final determination to list Thersites mitchellae as an endangered species on Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2000. Final determination to list predation from the Ship Rat Rattus rattus on Lord Howe Island as a key threatening process on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2001a. Final determination to list clearing of native vegetation as a key threatening process on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2001b. Final determination to list loss and/or degradation of sites used for hill-topping by butterflies as a key threatening process on Schedule 3 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
NSW Scientific Committee. 2004. Final determination to list the Lord Howe Island wood-feeding cockroach Panesthia lata as an endangered species on Schedule 1, Part 1 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995.
Parrish, R., Sherley, G. and Aviss, M. 1995 Giant Land Snail Recovery Plan Placostylus spp., Paryphanta sp. Threatened Species Recovery Plan Series No. 13. Threatened Species Unit, Department of Conservation, New Zealand.
Pickard, J. 1983. Vegetation of Lord Howe Island. Cunninghamia 1(2): 133-266.
Ponder, W. F. 1997. Conservation status, threats and habitat requirements of Australian terrestrial and freshwater Mollusca. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 421-430.
Ponder, W. F. 2000. Understanding molluscan diversity in our region - past progress and future directions. Molluscs 2000 Symposium Abstracts. Pp. 69-71. Malacological Society of Australasia, Sydney, NSW.
Ponder, W. F. and Chapman, R. 1999. Survey of the Land Snail Placostylus bivaricosus on Lord Howe Island. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Ponder, W. F., Colgan, D. J., Gleeson, D. M. and Sherley, G. 2003. Relationships of Placostylus from Lord Howe Island: an investigation using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene. Molluscan Research 23(2): 159-178.
Salas, M., Bonnaut, C., Le Bel, S. and Chardonnet, L. 1997. Activity and food intake of captive Placostylus fibratus (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) in New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 24: 257-264.
Sands, D. P. A. 1999. Conservation status of Lepidoptera: assessment, threatening processes and recovery actions. Pp. 382-87 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Sands, D. P. A. and New, T. R. 2002 The Action Plan for Australian Butterflies. Environment Australia, Canberra ACT.
Sherley, G. 1994. Translocations of the Mahoenui Giant Weta Deinacrida n. sp. and Placostylus land snails in New Zealand: what have we learnt? Chapter 11 (pp. 57-64) in Reintroduction Biology of Australian and New Zealand Fauna, edited by M. Serena. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Sydney, NSW.
Sherley, G., Stringer, I. A. N., Parrish, G. R. and Flux, I. 1998. Demography of two land snail populations ( Placostylus ambagiosus, Pulmonata, Bulimulidae) in relation to predator control in the far north of New Zealand. Biological Conservation 84: 83-88.
Smith, B. J. 1992 Non-marine Mollusca. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 8. CSIRO Publishing/ABRS: Melbourne Victoria.
Smithers, C. McAlpine, D., Colman, P. and Gray, M. 1977 Island Invertebrates. Pp. 23-26 in Lord Howe Island. Published by the Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Stanisic, J. 1994. The distribution and patterns of species diversity of land snails in eastern Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 36(1): 207-214.
Stanisic, J. 1997. An area of exceptional land snail diversity: the Macleay Valley, north-eastern New South Wales. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 441-448.
Stanisic, J. 1998. Survey for Land Snail Thersites mitchellae in Northern New South Wales. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Stanisic, J. 1999. Survey for Land Snail Thersites mitchellae in Northern New South Wales II. Investigation of Wilsons Creek locality. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Stanisic, J. 2000. Survey for Land Snail Thersites mitchellae in Northern New South Wales III. Investigation of Stotts Island locality. Unpublished report prepared for the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service Northern Directorate Threatened Species Unit, Coffs Harbour, NSW.
Stork, N. E. 1999. Estimating the number of species on Earth. Pp. 1-7 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates, edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Sutherland, L. and Ritchie, A. 1977. Defunct volcanoes and extinct horned turtles. Pages 7-12 in Lord Howe Island. Published by the Australian Museum, Sydney, NSW.
Van Praagh, B. D. 1997. Conservation of native earthworms and the role of the Giant Gippsland earthworm as a flagship taxon. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 597-603.
Yen, A. L., New, T. R., Van Praagh, B. D. and Vaughan, P. J. 1990. Invertebrate conservation: three case studies in southeastern Australia. Pp. 207-224 in Management and Conservation of Small Populations, edited by T. W. Clark and J. H. Seebeck. Chicago Zoological Society, Illinois, USA.
Yen, A. L. and Butcher, R. J. 1997 An Overview of the Conservation of Non-marine Invertebrates in Australia. Endangered Species Program, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal