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There are currently 20 species, populations or communities of fish, aquatic invertebrates and marine vegetation listed on the threatened species schedules of the NSW Fisheries Management Act 1994. Two of these species are the eastern freshwater cod Maccullochella ikei, and the grey nurse shark Carcharias taurus. In the 1970s, well over a decade prior to their listing as threatened, there were concerns over the population status of both fish, and various actions were initiated to help preserve and maintain stocks. For example, both species were totally protected from fishing in 1984, captive breeding techniques for eastern cod were investigated and underwater surveys of grey nurse shark populations commenced. Following listing, however, there has been a significant increase in emphasis on actions to help the recovery of both species, protect their habitat and increase knowledge of their biology and distribution. In the case of eastern cod, these actions have included surveys to document the distribution of remnant and stocked populations, tagging studies, genetic and ecological research, habitat restoration works and significant input into water sharing rules for relevant catchments. For grey nurse sharks, critical habitat areas have been declared at key aggregation sites, controls placed on fishing in and around these areas, additional diver surveys completed, tagging and tracking studies commenced to provide detailed information on movements and improved population estimates, and samples collected for genetic research. The changes in management strategies resulting from the listing of these threatened species in NSW may also have flow-on benefits for other aquatic species.

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds) 1996 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Bowen, B. W. 1997. Landscape-level conservation in the marine realm. Pp. 223-225 in Principles of conservation biology, (2nd edition), edited by G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
Butler, G. L. 2000. Population Structure and Habitat Preference of the Eastern Freshwater Cod, Maccullochella ikei (Pisces: Percichthyidae) within the Mann-Nymboida Catchments, NSW. Resource Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore. Integrated project. Unpublished.
Cowx, I. G. and Collares-Pereira, M. J., 2002. Freshwater fish conservation: options for the future. Pp. 443-452 in Conservation of freshwater Fishes: Options for the Future, edited by M. J. Collares-Pereira, M. M. Coelho and I. G. Cowx. Fishing News Books, London, UK.
Environment Australia 1997. Report to the Minister - Public nomination to the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992: Great white shark and grey nurse shark - recommended by the Endangered Species Scientific Subcommittee in the Threatened Species and Communities Section.
Faragher, R. A., Brown, P. and Harris, J. H. 1993. Population surveys of the endangered fish species trout cod ( Maccullochella maquariensis) and eastern cod ( M. ikei). Report for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla. 22 pp.
Franklin, J. F. 1992. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3(2): 202-205.
Harcourt, R. G., Gillings, M., Briscoe, D., Stow, A. 2003. Are east and west coast populations of the critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) genetically isolated? Final report to Environment Australia 1020pp. Department of Environment and Heritage. Canberra.
Ireland, D. 1984. The grey nurse shark. Underwater, 11: 10-13.
Marsh, N. 1995. A grey future for the grey nurse shark. Underwater Geographic, 39: 39-42.
New, T. R. 1995. Focussing on species for invertebrate conservation. Victorian Naturalist 112: 29-31.
NSW Fisheries 2004. Eastern cod recovery plan. NSW Fisheries, Port Stephens. 37 pp.
NSW Fisheries 2000. River flow requirements - Eastern Cod. Preliminary draft - 10 October 2000. NSW Fisheries Office of Conservation, Port Stephens. 8 pp.
NSW Fisheries 2002. Draft grey nurse shark recovery plan. NSW Fisheries, Port Stephens. 100 pp.
Otway, N. M. and Burke A. L. 2004. Mark recapture population estimate and movement of Grey Nurse Sharks. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series. NSW Fisheries, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Otway, N. M., Burke, A. L. Morrison, N. S. and Parker, P. C. 2003. Monitoring and identification of NSW Critical Habitat sites for conservation of Grey Nurse Sharks. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 47. NSW Fisheries, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 62 pp.
Otway, N. M., and Parker, P. C. 2000. The biology, ecology, distribution and abundance, and identification of marine protected areas for the conservation of threatened Grey Nurse Sharks in south east Australian waters. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 19. NSW Fisheries, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 132 pp.
Pepperell, J. G. 1992. Trends in the distribution, species composition and size of sharks caught by gamefish anglers off south-eastern Australia, 1961-90. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 213-25.
Pogonoski, J. J., Pollard, D. A. and Paxton, J. R. 2002 Conservation overview and action plan for Australian threatened and potentially threatened marine and estuarine fishes. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT Australia. 375 pp.
Pollard, D. A., Lincoln Smith, M. P., and Smith, A. K. 1996. The biology and conservation status of the grey nurse shark ( Carcharias taurus Rafinesque 1810) in New South Wales, Australia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6: 1-20.
Pollard, D and Wooden, I. 2002. Supplement to Eastern Cod Recovery Plan: Interim Results of Surveys in the Clarence and Richmond River Systems. NSW Fisheries Centre, Cronulla, October 2002.
Ponder, W., Hutchings, P., Chapman, R. 2002 Overview of the Conservation of Australian Marine Invertebrates. A Report for Environment Australia. Australian Museum, July 2002 (internet version, http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html).
Reed, J., and Clunie, P. 1997. Conservation of invertebrates in Victoria using the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 - achievements and potential for improvement. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 617-622.
Rowland, S. J. 1985. Aspects of the Biology and Artificial Breeding of the Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii and the Eastern Freshwater Cod, M. ikei sp. nov. Ph.D. Thesis, Macquarie University, 253 pp.
Rowland, S. J. 1993 Maccullochella ikei, an Endangered Species of Freshwater Cod (Pisces: Percichthyidae) from the Clarence River System, NSW and M. peelii mariensis, a New Subspecies from the Mary River System, Qld. Records of the Australian Museum 45: 121-145.
Rowland, S. J. 1996. Threatened fishes of the world: Maccullochella ikei Rowland, 1985 (Percichthyidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 46: 350
Tear, T. H., Scott, J. M., Hayward, P. H., and Griffith, B. 1995. Recovery plans and the Endangered Species Act: are criticisms supported by data? Conservation Biology 9(1): 182-195.
Walker, B. H. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6(1): 18-23.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., and Fisher, A. 1999. The Australian Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. Conservation Biology 13(5): 959-962.
Yen, A. L., and Butcher, R. J. 1997 An overview of the conservation of non-marine invertebrates in Australia. Environment Australia, Canberra.
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References

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds) 1996 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Bowen, B. W. 1997. Landscape-level conservation in the marine realm. Pp. 223-225 in Principles of conservation biology, (2nd edition), edited by G. K. Meffe and C. R. Carroll. Sinauer, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA.
Butler, G. L. 2000. Population Structure and Habitat Preference of the Eastern Freshwater Cod, Maccullochella ikei (Pisces: Percichthyidae) within the Mann-Nymboida Catchments, NSW. Resource Science and Management, Southern Cross University, Lismore. Integrated project. Unpublished.
Cowx, I. G. and Collares-Pereira, M. J., 2002. Freshwater fish conservation: options for the future. Pp. 443-452 in Conservation of freshwater Fishes: Options for the Future, edited by M. J. Collares-Pereira, M. M. Coelho and I. G. Cowx. Fishing News Books, London, UK.
Environment Australia 1997. Report to the Minister - Public nomination to the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992: Great white shark and grey nurse shark - recommended by the Endangered Species Scientific Subcommittee in the Threatened Species and Communities Section.
Faragher, R. A., Brown, P. and Harris, J. H. 1993. Population surveys of the endangered fish species trout cod ( Maccullochella maquariensis) and eastern cod ( M. ikei). Report for Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Program. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla. 22 pp.
Franklin, J. F. 1992. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3(2): 202-205.
Harcourt, R. G., Gillings, M., Briscoe, D., Stow, A. 2003. Are east and west coast populations of the critically endangered grey nurse sharks ( Carcharias taurus) genetically isolated? Final report to Environment Australia 1020pp. Department of Environment and Heritage. Canberra.
Ireland, D. 1984. The grey nurse shark. Underwater, 11: 10-13.
Marsh, N. 1995. A grey future for the grey nurse shark. Underwater Geographic, 39: 39-42.
New, T. R. 1995. Focussing on species for invertebrate conservation. Victorian Naturalist 112: 29-31.
NSW Fisheries 2004. Eastern cod recovery plan. NSW Fisheries, Port Stephens. 37 pp.
NSW Fisheries 2000. River flow requirements - Eastern Cod. Preliminary draft - 10 October 2000. NSW Fisheries Office of Conservation, Port Stephens. 8 pp.
NSW Fisheries 2002. Draft grey nurse shark recovery plan. NSW Fisheries, Port Stephens. 100 pp.
Otway, N. M. and Burke A. L. 2004. Mark recapture population estimate and movement of Grey Nurse Sharks. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series. NSW Fisheries, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Otway, N. M., Burke, A. L. Morrison, N. S. and Parker, P. C. 2003. Monitoring and identification of NSW Critical Habitat sites for conservation of Grey Nurse Sharks. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 47. NSW Fisheries, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 62 pp.
Otway, N. M., and Parker, P. C. 2000. The biology, ecology, distribution and abundance, and identification of marine protected areas for the conservation of threatened Grey Nurse Sharks in south east Australian waters. NSW Fisheries Final Report Series No. 19. NSW Fisheries, Sydney, NSW, Australia. 132 pp.
Pepperell, J. G. 1992. Trends in the distribution, species composition and size of sharks caught by gamefish anglers off south-eastern Australia, 1961-90. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 43: 213-25.
Pogonoski, J. J., Pollard, D. A. and Paxton, J. R. 2002 Conservation overview and action plan for Australian threatened and potentially threatened marine and estuarine fishes. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT Australia. 375 pp.
Pollard, D. A., Lincoln Smith, M. P., and Smith, A. K. 1996. The biology and conservation status of the grey nurse shark ( Carcharias taurus Rafinesque 1810) in New South Wales, Australia. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 6: 1-20.
Pollard, D and Wooden, I. 2002. Supplement to Eastern Cod Recovery Plan: Interim Results of Surveys in the Clarence and Richmond River Systems. NSW Fisheries Centre, Cronulla, October 2002.
Ponder, W., Hutchings, P., Chapman, R. 2002 Overview of the Conservation of Australian Marine Invertebrates. A Report for Environment Australia. Australian Museum, July 2002 (internet version, http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html).
Reed, J., and Clunie, P. 1997. Conservation of invertebrates in Victoria using the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 - achievements and potential for improvement. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56(2): 617-622.
Rowland, S. J. 1985. Aspects of the Biology and Artificial Breeding of the Murray cod, Maccullochella peelii and the Eastern Freshwater Cod, M. ikei sp. nov. Ph.D. Thesis, Macquarie University, 253 pp.
Rowland, S. J. 1993 Maccullochella ikei, an Endangered Species of Freshwater Cod (Pisces: Percichthyidae) from the Clarence River System, NSW and M. peelii mariensis, a New Subspecies from the Mary River System, Qld. Records of the Australian Museum 45: 121-145.
Rowland, S. J. 1996. Threatened fishes of the world: Maccullochella ikei Rowland, 1985 (Percichthyidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 46: 350
Tear, T. H., Scott, J. M., Hayward, P. H., and Griffith, B. 1995. Recovery plans and the Endangered Species Act: are criticisms supported by data? Conservation Biology 9(1): 182-195.
Walker, B. H. 1992. Biodiversity and ecological redundancy. Conservation Biology 6(1): 18-23.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., and Fisher, A. 1999. The Australian Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. Conservation Biology 13(5): 959-962.
Yen, A. L., and Butcher, R. J. 1997 An overview of the conservation of non-marine invertebrates in Australia. Environment Australia, Canberra.
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