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In this chapter we apply an ecological approach to considering the vertebrate species listed on the current schedules of the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995. We do so in light of our knowledge of the threats that have impacted on the vertebrate fauna of NSW, but mainly as a reflection on our role as the Scientific Committee (1992-95) in formulating the schedules of threatened fauna under the Endangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991. We reflect on the limitations of this process, including constraints on time, a lack of adequate knowledge for most species and differences in expert opinion. The final 1992 list included 236 threatened vertebrate species, or 26% of the fauna of NSW. Threatened species have since been elevated by instruments of government and land-use decisions to such a degree that other species are apparently no longer of interest. Thus 74% of our vertebrate fauna has become neglected. Many species are missing out on research effort, and other conceptual approaches, such as threatening processes, are not given priority. In our opinion, the apparent immutability of the scheduled species is illogical given the uncertainty of the listing process, and we see a pressing need for a dynamic database of species status so that the schedules reflect new knowledge and changes in the status of species as they occur. Threatened species deserve special attention, but their relative importance in the wider conservation agenda needs re-examination if we are to fulfil the broader aims of conserving biodiversity.

ANZECC/BDAC. 2001 Biodiversity Conservation Research: Australia's Priorities. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Barker, J. and Grigg, G. C. 1977 A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Rigby, Adelaide.
Barker, J., Grigg, G. C. and Tyler, M. J. 1995 A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Belcher, C. 2004. The largest surviving marsupial carnivore on mainland Australia: the Tiger or Spotted-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus, a nationally threatened, forest-dependent species. Pp 612-23 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Christy, M. T. 2003. Making headlines or saving a species? Australian Zoologist 324-28, in the proceedings of the Zoology and the Media forum, edited by D. Lunney, A. Matthews and P. Wilson. Australian Zoologist 32, No 2, 2003.
Cogger, H. G., Cameron, E. E., Sadlier, R. A. and Eggler, P. 1993 The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. ANCA, Canberra.
Cogger, H. G. and Lunney, D. 1992. The Endangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991: criteria for the selection of threatened, vulnerable and rare species of fauna. Pp. 1-9 in The Endangered Fauna Act in Action, edited by the Environmental Defender's Office, Sydney.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement. A new focus for Australia's forests. (second edition). Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Dickman, C. R., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. Ecological attributes and conservation of native rodents in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 27: 347-55.
Donnellan, S. C. and Mahony, M. J. 2004. Allozyme, chromosomal and morphological variability in the Litoria lesueuri species group (Anura: Hylidae), including a description of a new species. Australian Journal of Zoology 52: 1-28.
Goldingay, R. L. 1996. The green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea - from riches to ruins: conservation of a formerly common species. Australian Zoologist 30: 248-56.
Greer, A. E. 1996. Why green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea should not be translocated - an unpublished opinion. Australian Zoologist 30: 257-8.
Griffiths, T. 2001. One hundred years of environmental crisis. The Rangeland Journal 23: 5-14.
Hamilton, C., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. An economic evaluation of local government approaches to koala conservation. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 7: 158-69.
Jarman, P. J. and Brock, M. A. 2004. The evolving intent and coverage of legislation to protect biodiversity in New South Wales. Pp 1-19 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Knowles, R., Mahony, M., Armstrong, J. and Donnellan, S. 2004. Systematics of sphagnum frogs of the genus Philoria (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in eastern Australia, with the description of two new species. Records of the Australian Museum 56: 57-74.
Körtner, G., Gresser, S. and Harden, B. 2003. Does fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus? Wildlife Research 30: 111-8.
Lunney, D. (ed.). 1992 Zoology in Court. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. 1994. Review of official attitudes to western New South Wales 1901-93 with particular reference to the fauna. Pp. 1-26 in The Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. The Rangeland Journal 23: 44-70.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. 1993. The official status of frogs and reptiles in New South Wales. Pp. 404-8 in Herpetology in Australia: a Diverse Discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G. and Dickman, C. R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp. 1-132. (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Fisher, D., Ayers, D. and Dickman, C. R. 1997. The ecological attributes of the threatened fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 13-26.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2004. Conserving the forest mammals of NSW. Pp 988-1021 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Stein, J. A. and Lunney, H. W. M. 2003. Australian bat research: the limitations of The Action Plan for Australian Bats in determining the direction of research. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 255-60.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Turbill, J. 2002. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten year project. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 90-6.
Lunney, D., Urquhart, C. A. and Reed, P. (eds). 1990 Koala Summit. Managing Koalas in NSW. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Sydney 7-8 November 1988. Pp. 1-268. (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Margules, C. R. and Pressey, R. L. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243-53.
Millsap, B. A., Gore, J. A., Runde, D. E. and Cerulean, S. I. 1990. Setting the priorities for the conservation of fish and wildlife species in Florida. Wildlife Monographs Supplement Journal of Wildlife Management 54: 5-57.
Noble, J. 2001. Guest editorial. The Rangeland Journal 23: 3-4.
Pressey, R. L., Whish, G. L., Barrett, T. W. and Watts, M. E. 2002. Effectiveness of protected areas in north-eastern New South Wales: recent trends in six measures. Biological Conservation 106: 57-69.
Pyke, G. H. and Osborne, W. S. (eds). 1996. The green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea: biology and conservation. Special Edition. Australian Zoologist 30.
Pyke, G. H. and White, A. W. 2001. A review of the biology of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea.Australian Zoologist 31: 563-98.
Tyler, M. J. 1997 The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. Wildlife Australia, Canberra. 77 pages.
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References

ANZECC/BDAC. 2001 Biodiversity Conservation Research: Australia's Priorities. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Barker, J. and Grigg, G. C. 1977 A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Rigby, Adelaide.
Barker, J., Grigg, G. C. and Tyler, M. J. 1995 A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Belcher, C. 2004. The largest surviving marsupial carnivore on mainland Australia: the Tiger or Spotted-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus, a nationally threatened, forest-dependent species. Pp 612-23 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Christy, M. T. 2003. Making headlines or saving a species? Australian Zoologist 324-28, in the proceedings of the Zoology and the Media forum, edited by D. Lunney, A. Matthews and P. Wilson. Australian Zoologist 32, No 2, 2003.
Cogger, H. G., Cameron, E. E., Sadlier, R. A. and Eggler, P. 1993 The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. ANCA, Canberra.
Cogger, H. G. and Lunney, D. 1992. The Endangered Fauna (Interim Protection) Act 1991: criteria for the selection of threatened, vulnerable and rare species of fauna. Pp. 1-9 in The Endangered Fauna Act in Action, edited by the Environmental Defender's Office, Sydney.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1992 National Forest Policy Statement. A new focus for Australia's forests. (second edition). Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Dickman, C. R., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. Ecological attributes and conservation of native rodents in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 27: 347-55.
Donnellan, S. C. and Mahony, M. J. 2004. Allozyme, chromosomal and morphological variability in the Litoria lesueuri species group (Anura: Hylidae), including a description of a new species. Australian Journal of Zoology 52: 1-28.
Goldingay, R. L. 1996. The green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea - from riches to ruins: conservation of a formerly common species. Australian Zoologist 30: 248-56.
Greer, A. E. 1996. Why green and golden bell frogs Litoria aurea should not be translocated - an unpublished opinion. Australian Zoologist 30: 257-8.
Griffiths, T. 2001. One hundred years of environmental crisis. The Rangeland Journal 23: 5-14.
Hamilton, C., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. An economic evaluation of local government approaches to koala conservation. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 7: 158-69.
Jarman, P. J. and Brock, M. A. 2004. The evolving intent and coverage of legislation to protect biodiversity in New South Wales. Pp 1-19 in Threatened Species Legislation: is it just an act? edited by P. Hutchings, D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Knowles, R., Mahony, M., Armstrong, J. and Donnellan, S. 2004. Systematics of sphagnum frogs of the genus Philoria (Anura: Myobatrachidae) in eastern Australia, with the description of two new species. Records of the Australian Museum 56: 57-74.
Körtner, G., Gresser, S. and Harden, B. 2003. Does fox baiting threaten the spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus? Wildlife Research 30: 111-8.
Lunney, D. (ed.). 1992 Zoology in Court. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. 1994. Review of official attitudes to western New South Wales 1901-93 with particular reference to the fauna. Pp. 1-26 in The Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. The Rangeland Journal 23: 44-70.
Lunney, D. and Ayers, D. 1993. The official status of frogs and reptiles in New South Wales. Pp. 404-8 in Herpetology in Australia: a Diverse Discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G. and Dickman, C. R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp. 1-132. (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Fisher, D., Ayers, D. and Dickman, C. R. 1997. The ecological attributes of the threatened fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 13-26.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2004. Conserving the forest mammals of NSW. Pp 988-1021 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna (second edition), edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Stein, J. A. and Lunney, H. W. M. 2003. Australian bat research: the limitations of The Action Plan for Australian Bats in determining the direction of research. Pacific Conservation Biology 8: 255-60.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Turbill, J. 2002. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten year project. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 90-6.
Lunney, D., Urquhart, C. A. and Reed, P. (eds). 1990 Koala Summit. Managing Koalas in NSW. Proceedings of a conference held at the University of Sydney 7-8 November 1988. Pp. 1-268. (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Margules, C. R. and Pressey, R. L. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243-53.
Millsap, B. A., Gore, J. A., Runde, D. E. and Cerulean, S. I. 1990. Setting the priorities for the conservation of fish and wildlife species in Florida. Wildlife Monographs Supplement Journal of Wildlife Management 54: 5-57.
Noble, J. 2001. Guest editorial. The Rangeland Journal 23: 3-4.
Pressey, R. L., Whish, G. L., Barrett, T. W. and Watts, M. E. 2002. Effectiveness of protected areas in north-eastern New South Wales: recent trends in six measures. Biological Conservation 106: 57-69.
Pyke, G. H. and Osborne, W. S. (eds). 1996. The green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea: biology and conservation. Special Edition. Australian Zoologist 30.
Pyke, G. H. and White, A. W. 2001. A review of the biology of the green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea.Australian Zoologist 31: 563-98.
Tyler, M. J. 1997 The Action Plan for Australian Frogs. Wildlife Australia, Canberra. 77 pages.
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