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Surveys on the ground and of the literature have found 66 exotic earthworm species belonging to eight families. A checklist is provided with 18 species new to Australia from the author’s studies, including the first record of Lumbricus terrestris Linnaeus. State totals are increased, e.g., Queensland’s exotics are doubled to 36 species, Tasmania’s total is raised from 7 to 25. The various modes of introduction and dispersal are briefly discussed. As much of the continent has yet to be systematically surveyed, it is anticipate d that the tally of exotics will continue to grow, allowing the potential of this resource , valuable for sustainable primary production and waste management, to be further investigated for its potential to assist the Australian environment.

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