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The status of dingoes in seven major regions of Australia was investigated using skull discriminant measurements and pelt colours. Results indicated that there is only one form of dingo throughout Australia- the Australian dingo Canis lupus dingo. Previously held notions of several distinct forms, such as alpine, desert and tropical dingoes were dispelled.

Hybridisation with domestic dogs remains the greatest threat to the continued existence of pure dingo populations. Hybrids exist in wild populations from northern, central and north-western Australia, and it appears that only hybrids remain in the south-eastern Highlands of Australia. In New South Wales, mixed populations of dingoes and hybrids were present in the northeastern Tablelands about 20 years ago but whether or not dingoes still remain there will only be confirmed by analysis of samples from current populations. Other threats to dingoes are Dingo Preservation Societies and the recently enacted NSW Companion Animals Act because they are based on untested dingo stock and effectively increase the hybridisation process. Protecting dingoes under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 or the Commonwealth's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is also likely to be ineffective unless hybrids are removed from natural habitats.

Large islands offer the best hope of preserving dingoes in natural environments provided they are cleared of hybrids, the remaining dingo populations managed in relation to natural food supplies, and humans accept changes in ownership of pet dogs and the quality of the experience in enjoying dingoes.

Catling, P. C. 1979. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone and the testis in captive male dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo.Aust. J. Zool. 27: 939-44.
Catling, P. C., Corbett, L. K. and Newsome, A. E. 1992. Reproduction in captive and wild dingoes ( Canis familiaris dingo). Wildl. Res. 19: 195-205.
Clutton-Brock, J. 1977. Man-made dogs. Science 197: 1340-2.
Clutton-Brock, J. (ed.) 1989 The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism and Predation. Unwin Hyman: London.
Corbett, L. K. 1985. Morphological comparisons of Australian and Thai dingoes: a reappraisal of dingo status, distribution and ancestry. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 13: 277-91.
Corbett, L. 1995 The Dingo in Australia and Asia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.
Corbett, L. 1998. Management of dingoes on Fraser Island. Report to Queensland Department of Environment by ERA Environmental Services Pty Ltd.
Corbett, L. 1999. Jabiluka baseline surveys: terrestrial, arboreal and volant vertebrates, and terrestrial insects. Report to The Federal Minister for Resources and Energy. ERA Environmental Services Pty. Ltd.
Fleming, P. J. S. 1996. Aspects of the management of wild dogs ( Canis familiaris) in north-eastern New South Wales. M. Sc. thesis. University of New England.
Gloyd, J. S. 1992. Wolf hybrids: a biological time bomb. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 201: 391-2.
Higham, G. H. E., Kijngam, A. and Manly, B. F. J. 1980. An analysis of prehistoric canid remains from Thailand. J. Archaeol. Sci. 7: 149-65.
Jones, E. 1990. Physical characteristics and taxonomic status of wild canids, Canis familiaris, from the eastern highlands of Victoria. Aust. Wildl. Res. 17: 69-81.
Macintosh, N. W. G. 1964. A 3,000 year old dingo from shelter 6 (Fromm's Landing, South Australia). Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. 77: 498-507.
Mulvaney, D. J. 1975. The Prehistory of Australia. (rev.edn.) Penguin, Ringwood.
Newsome, A. E., Corbett, L. K., Best, L. W. and Green, B. 1973. The dingo. Aust. Meat Res. Comm. Rev. 14: 1-11.
Newsome, A. E., Corbett, L. K. and Carpenter, S. M. 1980. The identity of the dingo. I. Morphological discriminants of dingo and dog skulls. Aust. J. Zool. 28: 615-25.
Newsome, A. E. and Corbett, L. K. 1982. The identity of the dingo. II. Hybridisation with domestic dogs in captivity and in the wild. Aust. J. Zool. 30: 365-74.
Newsome, A. E. and Corbett, L. K. 1985. The identity of the dingo. III. The incidence of dingoes, dogs and hybrids and their coat colours in remote and settled regions of Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 33: 363-75.
Queensland Government. 1994. Great Sandy Region Management Plan. Fraser Implementation Unit, Brisbane.
Queensland Government. 1999. Draft Fraser Island dingo management strategy. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Great Sandy District office, Maryborough.
Vila, C. P., Savolainen, P., Maldonado, J. E., Amorim, I. R., Rice, J. E., Honeycutt, R. L., Crandall, K. A., Lundenberg, J. and Wayne, R. K. 1997. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science, 276: 1687-1689.
Wamsley, J. 1998. Rehabilitate for what? In: C. J. Asher and L. C. Bell (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Fauna Habitat Reconstruction after Mining, Adelaide, 10-11 Octobe 1997, pp. 139-44. Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research, Brisbane.
Wayne, R. K. 1993. Molecular evolution of the dog family. Trends in Genetics, 9: 218-224.
White, J. P. and O'Connell, J. F. 1982. A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Academic press, Sydney.
Williams, F. 1982. Written in the Sand. A History of Fraser Island. Jacaranda press, Brisbane.
Wilton, A. 2001. DNA methods of assessing dingo purity. A symposium on the Dingo, pp. xx-xx Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
Woodall, P. F., Pavlov, P. and Twyford, K. L. 1996. Dingoes in Queensland, Australia: skull dimensions and the identity of wild canids. Wildl. Res. 23: 581-7.
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References

Catling, P. C. 1979. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone and the testis in captive male dingoes, Canis familiaris dingo.Aust. J. Zool. 27: 939-44.
Catling, P. C., Corbett, L. K. and Newsome, A. E. 1992. Reproduction in captive and wild dingoes ( Canis familiaris dingo). Wildl. Res. 19: 195-205.
Clutton-Brock, J. 1977. Man-made dogs. Science 197: 1340-2.
Clutton-Brock, J. (ed.) 1989 The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism and Predation. Unwin Hyman: London.
Corbett, L. K. 1985. Morphological comparisons of Australian and Thai dingoes: a reappraisal of dingo status, distribution and ancestry. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 13: 277-91.
Corbett, L. 1995 The Dingo in Australia and Asia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.
Corbett, L. 1998. Management of dingoes on Fraser Island. Report to Queensland Department of Environment by ERA Environmental Services Pty Ltd.
Corbett, L. 1999. Jabiluka baseline surveys: terrestrial, arboreal and volant vertebrates, and terrestrial insects. Report to The Federal Minister for Resources and Energy. ERA Environmental Services Pty. Ltd.
Fleming, P. J. S. 1996. Aspects of the management of wild dogs ( Canis familiaris) in north-eastern New South Wales. M. Sc. thesis. University of New England.
Gloyd, J. S. 1992. Wolf hybrids: a biological time bomb. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 201: 391-2.
Higham, G. H. E., Kijngam, A. and Manly, B. F. J. 1980. An analysis of prehistoric canid remains from Thailand. J. Archaeol. Sci. 7: 149-65.
Jones, E. 1990. Physical characteristics and taxonomic status of wild canids, Canis familiaris, from the eastern highlands of Victoria. Aust. Wildl. Res. 17: 69-81.
Macintosh, N. W. G. 1964. A 3,000 year old dingo from shelter 6 (Fromm's Landing, South Australia). Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic. 77: 498-507.
Mulvaney, D. J. 1975. The Prehistory of Australia. (rev.edn.) Penguin, Ringwood.
Newsome, A. E., Corbett, L. K., Best, L. W. and Green, B. 1973. The dingo. Aust. Meat Res. Comm. Rev. 14: 1-11.
Newsome, A. E., Corbett, L. K. and Carpenter, S. M. 1980. The identity of the dingo. I. Morphological discriminants of dingo and dog skulls. Aust. J. Zool. 28: 615-25.
Newsome, A. E. and Corbett, L. K. 1982. The identity of the dingo. II. Hybridisation with domestic dogs in captivity and in the wild. Aust. J. Zool. 30: 365-74.
Newsome, A. E. and Corbett, L. K. 1985. The identity of the dingo. III. The incidence of dingoes, dogs and hybrids and their coat colours in remote and settled regions of Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 33: 363-75.
Queensland Government. 1994. Great Sandy Region Management Plan. Fraser Implementation Unit, Brisbane.
Queensland Government. 1999. Draft Fraser Island dingo management strategy. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Great Sandy District office, Maryborough.
Vila, C. P., Savolainen, P., Maldonado, J. E., Amorim, I. R., Rice, J. E., Honeycutt, R. L., Crandall, K. A., Lundenberg, J. and Wayne, R. K. 1997. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science, 276: 1687-1689.
Wamsley, J. 1998. Rehabilitate for what? In: C. J. Asher and L. C. Bell (eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Fauna Habitat Reconstruction after Mining, Adelaide, 10-11 Octobe 1997, pp. 139-44. Australian Centre for Mining Environmental Research, Brisbane.
Wayne, R. K. 1993. Molecular evolution of the dog family. Trends in Genetics, 9: 218-224.
White, J. P. and O'Connell, J. F. 1982. A Prehistory of Australia, New Guinea and Sahul. Academic press, Sydney.
Williams, F. 1982. Written in the Sand. A History of Fraser Island. Jacaranda press, Brisbane.
Wilton, A. 2001. DNA methods of assessing dingo purity. A symposium on the Dingo, pp. xx-xx Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
Woodall, P. F., Pavlov, P. and Twyford, K. L. 1996. Dingoes in Queensland, Australia: skull dimensions and the identity of wild canids. Wildl. Res. 23: 581-7.
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