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The experiencing of wildlife by tourists has become the business of wildlife tourism (WT). Essentially, this is about increasing the probability of positive encounters with wildlife for visitors whilst protecting the wildlife resource. There is a wide range of species, habitats, methods of observing, tricks for improving the encounters, and levels of interpretation involved. Some of these are more desirable than others, both from the observer's and/or animal's point of view.

This is a genuinely multi-disciplinary area which fulfils real human needs and can be made to both build support of conservation and provide funding for it. Both biologists and social scientists need to be involved in order to achieve research which will improve the quality of the experience from both the animals' and visitors' points of view.

Braithwaite, R. W., 2001. The role of tourism. In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity ed S. Levin. Academic Press, New York Pp. 67-79.
Braithwaite, R. W., Reynolds, P. C. and Pongracz, G. B., 1996 Wildlife Tourism at Yellow Waters. Final Report. An analysis of the environmental, social and economic compromise options for sustainable operation of a tour boat venture in Kakadu National Park. A Report to the Federal Department of Tourism, Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Gagudju Association, Inc.
Duffus, D. A. and Deardon, P., 1993. Recreational use, valuation, and Management, of Killer Whales ( Orcinus orca) on Canada's Pacific Coast. Environmental Conservation 20: 149-156.
Ewart, A. and Shultis, J., 1997. Resource-based Tourism: An emerging trend in tourism. Parks and Recreation 32: 94-104.
HLA Consultants, GAIA Consultants, and Cottonwood Consultants, 1990 Marketing Watchable Wildlife Tourism in Alberta. Report prepared for Alberta Tourism and Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Hundloe, T. and Hamilton, C., 1997. Koalas and Tourism: An Economic Evaluation. Discussion Paper No. 13. The Australia Institute.
Kellert, S., 1980. Activities of the American public relating to animals. Phase II of U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Study. Cited in HLA Consultants, GAIA Consultants, and Cottonwood Consultants. (1990) Marketing Watchable Wildlife Tourism in Alberta.
Knight, R. L. and Cole, D. N., 1995. Wildlife responses to recreationists. Pp. 71-80 in Wildlife and Recreation: Coexistence through Management and Research eds R. L. Knight and K. J. Gutzwiller. Island Press, Washington, D. C.
Lindberg, K. and Hawkins, D. E., 1994 (eds) Ecotourism: a guide for planners and managers The Ecotourism Society Wiley and Sons New York.
Lindberg, K. Wood, M. E. and Engeldrum, D., 1998 Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers Volume 2. The Ecotourism Society, North Bennington, Vermont.
McFarlane, B. L. and Boxall, P. C., 1996. Participation in wildlife conservation by birdwatchers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 1: 1-14
MacNaughten, P. and Urry, J., 1998 Contested Natures. Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK.
Reynolds, P. C. and Braithwaite, R. W., 2001. Towards a framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism Management 22: 31-42.
Routley, R. and Routley, V., 1975 The Fight for the Forests, 3rd edition. Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.
Sax, J., 1980 Mountains without Handrails: Reflections on the National Parks. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Weaver, D., Faulkner, B. and Lawton, L., 1998. Nature-based Tourism in Australia and Beyond: A preliminary investigation. Research Monograph, CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast Qld.
World Wildlife Fund, 1988. Cited in Jenner, P. and Smith, C., 1992. The Tourism Industry and the Environment. Economist Intelligence Unit Special Report No. 2453, London, UK.
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References

Braithwaite, R. W., 2001. The role of tourism. In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity ed S. Levin. Academic Press, New York Pp. 67-79.
Braithwaite, R. W., Reynolds, P. C. and Pongracz, G. B., 1996 Wildlife Tourism at Yellow Waters. Final Report. An analysis of the environmental, social and economic compromise options for sustainable operation of a tour boat venture in Kakadu National Park. A Report to the Federal Department of Tourism, Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Gagudju Association, Inc.
Duffus, D. A. and Deardon, P., 1993. Recreational use, valuation, and Management, of Killer Whales ( Orcinus orca) on Canada's Pacific Coast. Environmental Conservation 20: 149-156.
Ewart, A. and Shultis, J., 1997. Resource-based Tourism: An emerging trend in tourism. Parks and Recreation 32: 94-104.
HLA Consultants, GAIA Consultants, and Cottonwood Consultants, 1990 Marketing Watchable Wildlife Tourism in Alberta. Report prepared for Alberta Tourism and Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Hundloe, T. and Hamilton, C., 1997. Koalas and Tourism: An Economic Evaluation. Discussion Paper No. 13. The Australia Institute.
Kellert, S., 1980. Activities of the American public relating to animals. Phase II of U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Study. Cited in HLA Consultants, GAIA Consultants, and Cottonwood Consultants. (1990) Marketing Watchable Wildlife Tourism in Alberta.
Knight, R. L. and Cole, D. N., 1995. Wildlife responses to recreationists. Pp. 71-80 in Wildlife and Recreation: Coexistence through Management and Research eds R. L. Knight and K. J. Gutzwiller. Island Press, Washington, D. C.
Lindberg, K. and Hawkins, D. E., 1994 (eds) Ecotourism: a guide for planners and managers The Ecotourism Society Wiley and Sons New York.
Lindberg, K. Wood, M. E. and Engeldrum, D., 1998 Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers Volume 2. The Ecotourism Society, North Bennington, Vermont.
McFarlane, B. L. and Boxall, P. C., 1996. Participation in wildlife conservation by birdwatchers. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 1: 1-14
MacNaughten, P. and Urry, J., 1998 Contested Natures. Sage Publications Ltd, London, UK.
Reynolds, P. C. and Braithwaite, R. W., 2001. Towards a framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism Management 22: 31-42.
Routley, R. and Routley, V., 1975 The Fight for the Forests, 3rd edition. Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra.
Sax, J., 1980 Mountains without Handrails: Reflections on the National Parks. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Weaver, D., Faulkner, B. and Lawton, L., 1998. Nature-based Tourism in Australia and Beyond: A preliminary investigation. Research Monograph, CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast Qld.
World Wildlife Fund, 1988. Cited in Jenner, P. and Smith, C., 1992. The Tourism Industry and the Environment. Economist Intelligence Unit Special Report No. 2453, London, UK.
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