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The revolution advocated in this forum is that Australia move away from its European farming practices, as suggested by Australian Museum Director Michael Archer and others, and utilise native plants and animals on an ecologically sustainable basis. For example, developing a consumer market for wild-shot kangaroos as an alternative to conventional sheep grazing has much to offer the conservation of rangelands, but there are some who strongly oppose any commercial use of Australia's wildlife. Philosopher and animal rights activist Peter Singer asks us to “consider whether it is ethically justifiable to kill wild animals, not for survival, but in order to profit from their meat and skins”. Supporters of kangaroo harvesting must engage with this argument if there is to be any meeting point for debate with Singer and the animal liberation cause. The central proposition put by Archer, Grigg and all who advocate kangaroo harvesting in the sheep rangelands is that the land itself is so degraded that it is unethical to allow this situation to continue or worsen. The ethical case is therefore broader than the simple question of the commercial culling of kangaroos. The land itself must be taken into consideration when the real issue is the long-term future of the country itself.

Anon. 2000 Western Lands Review. Final Report. Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney. (This is available with all the accompanying reports on the web at www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au)
Archer, M., Hand, S. and Godthelp, H. 1994 Riversleigh. Reed Books, Chatswood.
ANZECC 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Berryman, J. H. 1987. Socioeconomic values of the wildlife resource: are we really serious? Pp. 5-11 in Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives edited by Decker, D. J. and Goff, G. R. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Burgman, M. and Lindenmayer, D. 1998 Conservation Biology. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Commonwealth of Australia 1996a The National Strategy for the conservation of Australia's biological diversity. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Commonwealth of Australia 1996b State of the Environment Australia 1996. CSIRO, Collingwood.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65:219-48.
Dickman, C. R., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. Ecological attributes and conservation of native rodents in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 27:347-55.
Dickman, C. R., Whish, G. L. and Pressey, R. L. 2002 Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales: distributions, habitats and threats. Occasional Paper 22, National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville.
Eldredge, N. 1998 Life in the Balance. Humanity and the Biodiversity Crisis. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
EPA 2000 New South Wales State of the Environment Report 2000. Environment Protection Authority, Sydney.
Gilroy, J. 1999. Kangaroo monitoring in relation to kangaroo management in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31:306-8.
Grigg, G. C. 1995. Kangaroo harvesting for conservation of rangelands, kangaroos and graziers. Pp. 161-5 in Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife, edited by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Grigg, G. C., Hale, P. T. and Lunney, D. (eds). 1995 Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Hamilton, C. 2001 Running from the Storm. The development of climate change policy in Australia. University of NSW Press, Kensington.
Hamilton, C., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. An economic evaluation of local government approaches to koala conservation. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 7:158-69.
Lunney, D. 1995. Kangaroo harvesting in the context of ecologically sustainable development (ESD) and biodiversity conservation. Pp. 166-75 in Conservation through Sustainable use of Wildlife, edited by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Lunney, D. 1999. Is ethics opposed to science? A wildlife zoologist's viewpoint. Pp. 119-28 in The Use of Wildlife for Research, edited by D. Mellor and V. Monamy. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, SA.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. Rangeland Journal 23:44-70.
Lunney, D. and Grigg, G. C. (eds) 1988 Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid lands; a symposium. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman. Australian Zoologist 24:121-93.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 1997. The changing roles of state and local government in fauna conservation outside nature reserves: a case study of koalas in New South Wales. Pp. 97-106 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and Turbill, J. 1999 Coffs Harbour City Koala Plan of Management. Parts A & B. November 1999. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville. Copies available from Coffs Harbour City Council.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000a The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Pp. 1-132. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Ferrier, S. 2000b. Incorporating habitat mapping into practical koala conservation on private lands. Conservation Biology 14:669-80.
Lunney, D., Coburn, D., Matthews, A. and Moon, C. 2001. Community perceptions of koala populations and their management in Port Stephens and Coffs Harbour local government areas, New South Wales. Pp. 48-70 in The Research and Management of Non-urban Koala Populations, edited by K. Lyons, A. Melzer, D. Lamb and F. Carrick. Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton.
Lunney D., Matthews, A., Moon. C. and Turbill, J. in press. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten year project. Ecological Restoration and Management.
Mellor, D. and Monamy, V. (eds) 1999 The Use of Wildlife for Research. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, SA.
NPWS 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville.
Parliament of Australia 1998 Commercial Utilisation of Australian Native Wildlife. Report of the Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Committee. Commonwealth of Australia, Parliament House, Canberra.
Pople, A. R. (ed) 1999. Aerial surveys for kangaroo management. Australian Zoologist 31:263-320.
Recher, H. F. 1999. The state of Australia's avifauna: a personal opinion and prediction for the new millennium. Australian Zoologist 31:11-27.
Singer, P. 1995 Animal Liberation (2nd edn.). Pimlico, London.
Singer, P. 1999. Foreword to Ethics and killing wildlife, p.6 in The Kangaroo Betrayed. The World's Largest Wildlife Slaughter, edited by M. Wilson. Hill of Content Publishing, Melbourne.
Wilson, M. (ed) 1999 The Kangaroo Betrayed. The World's Largest Wildlife Slaughter (2nd edn). Hill of Content Publishing, Melbourne.
Wood, A. 2000a. An emerging consensus on biodiversity loss. Pp. 1-10 in The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss, edited by A. Wood, P. Stedman-Edwards and J. Mang. Earthscan Publications, London.
Wood, A. 2000b. Recommendations on addressing the root causes of biodiversity loss. Pp. 80-94 in The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss, edited by A. Wood, P. Stedman-Edwards and J. Mang. Earthscan Publications, London.
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References

Anon. 2000 Western Lands Review. Final Report. Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney. (This is available with all the accompanying reports on the web at www.dlwc.nsw.gov.au)
Archer, M., Hand, S. and Godthelp, H. 1994 Riversleigh. Reed Books, Chatswood.
ANZECC 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Berryman, J. H. 1987. Socioeconomic values of the wildlife resource: are we really serious? Pp. 5-11 in Valuing Wildlife: Economic and Social Perspectives edited by Decker, D. J. and Goff, G. R. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.
Burgman, M. and Lindenmayer, D. 1998 Conservation Biology. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Commonwealth of Australia 1996a The National Strategy for the conservation of Australia's biological diversity. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Commonwealth of Australia 1996b State of the Environment Australia 1996. CSIRO, Collingwood.
Dickman, C. R., Pressey, R. L., Lim, L. and Parnaby, H. E. 1993. Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales. Biological Conservation 65:219-48.
Dickman, C. R., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. Ecological attributes and conservation of native rodents in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 27:347-55.
Dickman, C. R., Whish, G. L. and Pressey, R. L. 2002 Mammals of particular conservation concern in the Western Division of New South Wales: distributions, habitats and threats. Occasional Paper 22, National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville.
Eldredge, N. 1998 Life in the Balance. Humanity and the Biodiversity Crisis. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
EPA 2000 New South Wales State of the Environment Report 2000. Environment Protection Authority, Sydney.
Gilroy, J. 1999. Kangaroo monitoring in relation to kangaroo management in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 31:306-8.
Grigg, G. C. 1995. Kangaroo harvesting for conservation of rangelands, kangaroos and graziers. Pp. 161-5 in Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife, edited by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Grigg, G. C., Hale, P. T. and Lunney, D. (eds). 1995 Conservation through Sustainable Use of Wildlife. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Hamilton, C. 2001 Running from the Storm. The development of climate change policy in Australia. University of NSW Press, Kensington.
Hamilton, C., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. An economic evaluation of local government approaches to koala conservation. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 7:158-69.
Lunney, D. 1995. Kangaroo harvesting in the context of ecologically sustainable development (ESD) and biodiversity conservation. Pp. 166-75 in Conservation through Sustainable use of Wildlife, edited by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Lunney, D. 1999. Is ethics opposed to science? A wildlife zoologist's viewpoint. Pp. 119-28 in The Use of Wildlife for Research, edited by D. Mellor and V. Monamy. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, SA.
Lunney, D. 2001. Causes of the extinction of native mammals of the Western Division of New South Wales: an ecological interpretation of the nineteenth century historical record. Rangeland Journal 23:44-70.
Lunney, D. and Grigg, G. C. (eds) 1988 Kangaroo harvesting and the conservation of arid and semi-arid lands; a symposium. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman. Australian Zoologist 24:121-93.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 1997. The changing roles of state and local government in fauna conservation outside nature reserves: a case study of koalas in New South Wales. Pp. 97-106 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and Turbill, J. 1999 Coffs Harbour City Koala Plan of Management. Parts A & B. November 1999. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville. Copies available from Coffs Harbour City Council.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000a The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Pp. 1-132. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville.
Lunney, D., Matthews, A., Moon, C. and Ferrier, S. 2000b. Incorporating habitat mapping into practical koala conservation on private lands. Conservation Biology 14:669-80.
Lunney, D., Coburn, D., Matthews, A. and Moon, C. 2001. Community perceptions of koala populations and their management in Port Stephens and Coffs Harbour local government areas, New South Wales. Pp. 48-70 in The Research and Management of Non-urban Koala Populations, edited by K. Lyons, A. Melzer, D. Lamb and F. Carrick. Central Queensland University Press, Rockhampton.
Lunney D., Matthews, A., Moon. C. and Turbill, J. in press. Achieving fauna conservation on private land: reflections on a ten year project. Ecological Restoration and Management.
Mellor, D. and Monamy, V. (eds) 1999 The Use of Wildlife for Research. ANZCCART, Glen Osmond, SA.
NPWS 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. National Parks and Wildlife Service (NSW), Hurstville.
Parliament of Australia 1998 Commercial Utilisation of Australian Native Wildlife. Report of the Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Committee. Commonwealth of Australia, Parliament House, Canberra.
Pople, A. R. (ed) 1999. Aerial surveys for kangaroo management. Australian Zoologist 31:263-320.
Recher, H. F. 1999. The state of Australia's avifauna: a personal opinion and prediction for the new millennium. Australian Zoologist 31:11-27.
Singer, P. 1995 Animal Liberation (2nd edn.). Pimlico, London.
Singer, P. 1999. Foreword to Ethics and killing wildlife, p.6 in The Kangaroo Betrayed. The World's Largest Wildlife Slaughter, edited by M. Wilson. Hill of Content Publishing, Melbourne.
Wilson, M. (ed) 1999 The Kangaroo Betrayed. The World's Largest Wildlife Slaughter (2nd edn). Hill of Content Publishing, Melbourne.
Wood, A. 2000a. An emerging consensus on biodiversity loss. Pp. 1-10 in The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss, edited by A. Wood, P. Stedman-Edwards and J. Mang. Earthscan Publications, London.
Wood, A. 2000b. Recommendations on addressing the root causes of biodiversity loss. Pp. 80-94 in The Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss, edited by A. Wood, P. Stedman-Edwards and J. Mang. Earthscan Publications, London.
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