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The management of flying-fox camps is pivotal to the overall conservation and management of flying-foxes. This paper employs an historical approach to assess the effectiveness of camp removal in the Brisbane area as a tool in the management of flying-foxes. Much of what has been learnt in the last 25 years has been thrust upon us by hasty and unplanned attempts to remove flying-fox camps. There have been many attempts, many failures and only a few claims of success in moving flying-fox camps. None of the claimed successes has ever been monitored in such a way that their effectiveness can be adequately assessed with any confidence. Long term observations suggest that, in moving a flying-fox camp, the problem is merely transferred to other areas, and the whole process starts all over again with a new lot of players. There is still more that we need to know to successfully address camp management. The microclimate of camps needs more research, as does the seeding of new areas with ground litter containing flying-fox droppings, and the location of orphan release cages set up in prospective new camp sites. Nevertheless, it is apparent that in the future it will make more sense to manage flying-fox camps where they are and use strategies to lessen the impact on people who object to their presence.

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