Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

From the time of European settlement of Australia, flying-foxes have been treated as vermin and their management has focused on attempts to control numbers in local areas by culling and disturbance. The listing of Grey-headed Flying-foxes as vulnerable under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995 (TSC Act) heralded a controversial shift in management to accommodate conservation goals. The decision to list Grey-headed Flying-foxes was based on a decline in numbers related predominately to habitat loss and was taken after a lengthy and thorough review of evidence gathered from a range of experts and the public. Grey-headed Flying-foxes migrate hundreds of kilometres between successive areas of nectar flow, and the numbers present in a local area fluctuate widely between seasons and between years. Intensive episodes of crop damage or conflict at roosts occur intermittently in line with the irregular patterns of nectar flow and migrations. The practice of killing Grey-headed Flying-foxes in crops, and disrupting them at roosts, is carried out on the assumption that the species is organised as discrete local populations whose size can be controlled locally. They continue to be primary management tools despite their failure either to provide consistent protection to the commercial fruit industry or to resolve conflict at controversial camps. There is an urgent need to develop new approaches to flying-fox management. It is our view that effective methods of on-crop control and conflict resolution at camps are essential to the recovery of Grey-headed Flying-foxes.

Accad, A., Neldner, V. J., Wilson, B. A., and Niehus, R. E. 2001 Remnant vegetation in Queensland: Analysis of Pre-clearing, Remnant 1997-1999 Regional Ecosystem Information. Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
Anon. 1870. “Account of a recent extermination expedition to the haunt of the flying-foxes”, Singleton Times. The Zoologist May: 2137-2138.
Anon. 1890. Orchard Pests. Experiments on flying-foxes with explosives. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 1:105-107.
ANZECC. 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp 12-52 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Bicknell, J. 2002. The need for aversion agents for managing flying-foxes on crops and the difficulties in attracting research funds. Pp. 63-69 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Biel, E. 2002. The cost to orchardists in the management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Who pays? A community benefit approach. Pp. 47-52 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. S. 1998. Urban flying-foxes. Nature Australia 26: 54-59.
Blade, K. (ed) 1992 Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Bower, C. 2002. Management issues in minimisation of damage by flying-foxes to horticultural crops. Pp. 77-79 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Campbell, J. and Greer, N. 1994. Controlling pest losses - why, how, how much? Pp. 38-41 in Bird and Bat Control for Horticulture and Aquaculture. edited by R. Turner. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Catterall, C., Storey, R. and Kingston, M. B. 1997. Reality versus rhetoric: a case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pp 367-377 in Conservation outside nature reserves. edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Comensoli, P. 2002. The impact upon fruit growers of a decision to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 53-55 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Darnell-Smith G. P. 1917. The flying-fox. Agricultural Gazette of N. S. W. May 2. 319-326.
Dickman, C. and Fleming, M. 2002. Pest, or Passenger Pigeon? The New South Wales Scientific Committee's assessment of the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pp. 20-28 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Dickman, C. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2001 A Symposium on the Dingo. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. (eds). 1999 The 1999 Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia: Canberra.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed Flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-559.
Eby, P. 1995 Biology and Management of Pteropus in New South Wales. Species Report. Hurstville, NSW: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Eby, P. 1996 Interactions between the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) and its diet plants - seasonal movements and seed dispersal. PhD Thesis, University of New England, Armidale, NSW.
Eby, P. 1998. An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus in Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 443-56.
Eby, P. 2002. Using New South Wales planning instruments to improve conservation and management of Grey-headed Flying-fox camps. Pp. 240-250 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P., Collins, L., Richards, G. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, Pteropus poliocephalus during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. 2002. Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus as a threatened species in NSW: adjusting to a long-term vision. Pp. 273-284 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Fleming, T. H. and Eby, P. in press. Ecology of bat migration. In: Ecology of Bats. Ed by T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton. University of Chicago Press.
Flora and Fauna Guarantee - Scientific Advisory Committee 2001. Final recommendation on a nomination for listing - Pteropus poliocephalus Temminck 1825 - Grey-headed Flying-fox. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne.
Ford, D. 2002. An historical perspective of changing community attitudes towards Flying-foxes in Sydney. Pp. 146-159 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Gough, J. 2002. The increasing need for netting fruit orchards against bat and bird damage and the increasing problems in affording netting. Pp. 56-57 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of a new millenium. Pp 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Hall, L. S. 2002. Management of flying fox camps: what have we learnt in the last twenty five years? Pp. 215-224 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1986. Proceedings of the First National Flying fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 73-157.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. 2000 Flying Foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. UNSW Press: Sydney.
House, S. 1997. Reproductive biology of eucalypts. Pp. 30-54 In Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems Ed by J. E. Williams and J. C. Z. Woinarski. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Hughes, J. 2002. Survival, inquiry and sophistication in managing Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pp. 142-145 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hughes, R. L. 1987. Concluding remarks to the First National Flying Fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10:157.
Ireland, G. 1989. Millions of dollars of damage caused. BGF Bulletin 53: 21.
Isaac, N. and Mace, G. M. 1998 The IUCN criteria review: report of the scoping workshop. Gland: IUCN.
IUCN. 1994 IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
Kingston, M. B., Turnbill, M. B., Hall, J. W., Boulton, S. C. and Storey, R. J. 1999 Tweed Vegetation Management Plan. Murwillumbah. NSW: Tweed Shire Council.
Larsen, E., Beck, M. and Hartnell, E. and Crunaune 2002. Neighbours of Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: Community Attitudes Survey 2001. Pp. 225-239 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Law, B. S., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L., and Tweedie, T. 2000. The flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-78.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp 1-132. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds.) 2002 A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal Ecology 13: 67-92.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the rainforest remnants of north-east NSW. Pp. 247-277 In Australia's Ever-Changing Forests III Ed by J. Dargavel. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University: Canberra.
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Sherwin, W. B. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106: 101-13.
Lunney, D., Urquhart, C. A. and Reed, P. (eds) 1990 Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW. Proceedings of a conference held at the Univ. of Sydney 7-8 November 1988. (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Martin, L., Kennedy, J. H., Little, L., Luckhoff, H. C., O'Brien, G. M., Pow, C. S. T., Towers, P. A., Waldon, A. K. and Wang, D. Y. 1995. The reproductive biology of Australian flying-foxes (genus Pteropus). Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 67: 167-184.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. P. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus, and the implications of culling. Pp. 91-108 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
McLachlan, B. 2002. NPWS operational management of commercial crop damage by flying-foxes - licensing in practice a far north coast perspective. Pp. 80-83 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Menkhorst, P. W. (ed) 1995. Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus Temminck, 1825. Pp. 156-158. in Mammals of Victoria. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Menkhorst, P. W. and Dixon J. M. 1985. Influxes of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) to Victoria in 1981 and 1982. Australian Mammalogy 8:117-121.
Nelson, J. E., 1965. Movements of Australian flying-foxes (Pteropodidae: Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology. 13: 53-73.
O'Brien, G. M. 1993. Seasonal reproduction in flying-foxes, reviewed in the context of other tropical mammals. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 5: 499-521.
Parry-Jones, K. A. 1993. The movements of Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1991. Food selection by Grey-headed flying-foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) occupying a summer colony site near Gosford, N. S. W. Wildlife Research 18: 111-124.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1992. Movements of Grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-340.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee. M. L. 2001. Factors affecting the occupation of a colony site in Sydney, New South Wales by the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (Pteropodidae). Austral Ecology 26: 47-55.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Bulletin of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 53: 1-80.
Richards, G. (ed) 2000. Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying Fox. Australasian Bat Society, Canberra.
Richards, G. 2002. The development of strategies for management of the flying-fox colony at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Pp. 196-201 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Richards, G. and Hall, L. S. 1994 An Assessment of the Conservation Status of Australia's Bat Fauna. Report to the Biodiversity Group of Environment Australia, Canberra.
Rogers, J. 2002. The economic and social implications of flying-fox predation on the north coast of NSW. Pp. 58-62 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Slack, J. (ed) 1990 Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries. Wollongbar, NSW.
Slack, J. and Reilly, T. 1994. The economics of orchard netting. Pp 42-54 in Bird and Bat Control for Horticulture and Aquaculture, edited by R. Turner. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Slack, J. and Ullio, L. 2000. NSW stonefruit. Deciduous fruit program. Pp 28-29 in Farms Budget Handbook 2000, NSW Agriculture. Orange, NSW.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of roost sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Peteropus poliocephalus on the north coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective. Pp. 202-214 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit-bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research 18: 463-468.
Teagle, S. 2002. Flying fox Consultative Committee - formation, outcomes and future strategies. Pp. 109-116 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. Biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poloiocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1: 151-164.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Sustainable management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. In A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery (eds), The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Pp 31-35. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Tidemann, C. R., Kelson, S. L. and Jamieson, G. 1997. Flying-fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia - incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biologist 10: 179-186.
Turner, R. (ed) 1994 Bird and Bat Control for Horticulture and Aquaculture. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Ullio, L. 1992. Flying-foxes and fruit growing around Sydney. Pp 8-13 in Proceedings of a Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. edited by K. Blade, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service. Turramurra, NSW.
Ullio, L. 2002. To net or not to net! That is the question, but is it the answer? Pp 70-76 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Waples, K. 2002. Review of the NPWS policy on the mitigation of commercial crop damage by flying-foxes. Pp 39-46 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Webb, N. and Tidemann, C. 1995. Hybridisation between black ( Pteropus alecto) and grey-headed ( Grey-headed Flying-fox) flying-foxes (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Australian Mammalogy 18: 19-26
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying fox camps. Pp. 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Wilson, B. A., Neldner, V. J. and Accad, A. in press. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. Australian Rangelands.
Wilson, J. and Bennett, A. F. 1999. Patchiness of a floral resource: flowering of red ironbark Eucalyptus tricarpa in a Box and Ironbark forest. Victorian Naturalist 116: 48-53.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Accad, A., Neldner, V. J., Wilson, B. A., and Niehus, R. E. 2001 Remnant vegetation in Queensland: Analysis of Pre-clearing, Remnant 1997-1999 Regional Ecosystem Information. Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
Anon. 1870. “Account of a recent extermination expedition to the haunt of the flying-foxes”, Singleton Times. The Zoologist May: 2137-2138.
Anon. 1890. Orchard Pests. Experiments on flying-foxes with explosives. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 1:105-107.
ANZECC. 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Archer, M. 2002. Confronting crises in conservation: a talk on the wild side. Pp 12-52 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Bicknell, J. 2002. The need for aversion agents for managing flying-foxes on crops and the difficulties in attracting research funds. Pp. 63-69 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Biel, E. 2002. The cost to orchardists in the management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Who pays? A community benefit approach. Pp. 47-52 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. S. 1998. Urban flying-foxes. Nature Australia 26: 54-59.
Blade, K. (ed) 1992 Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Bower, C. 2002. Management issues in minimisation of damage by flying-foxes to horticultural crops. Pp. 77-79 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Campbell, J. and Greer, N. 1994. Controlling pest losses - why, how, how much? Pp. 38-41 in Bird and Bat Control for Horticulture and Aquaculture. edited by R. Turner. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Catterall, C., Storey, R. and Kingston, M. B. 1997. Reality versus rhetoric: a case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pp 367-377 in Conservation outside nature reserves. edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Comensoli, P. 2002. The impact upon fruit growers of a decision to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 53-55 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Darnell-Smith G. P. 1917. The flying-fox. Agricultural Gazette of N. S. W. May 2. 319-326.
Dickman, C. and Fleming, M. 2002. Pest, or Passenger Pigeon? The New South Wales Scientific Committee's assessment of the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pp. 20-28 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Dickman, C. and Lunney, D. (eds). 2001 A Symposium on the Dingo. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. (eds). 1999 The 1999 Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environment Australia: Canberra.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed Flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-559.
Eby, P. 1995 Biology and Management of Pteropus in New South Wales. Species Report. Hurstville, NSW: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Eby, P. 1996 Interactions between the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) and its diet plants - seasonal movements and seed dispersal. PhD Thesis, University of New England, Armidale, NSW.
Eby, P. 1998. An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus in Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 443-56.
Eby, P. 2002. Using New South Wales planning instruments to improve conservation and management of Grey-headed Flying-fox camps. Pp. 240-250 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P., Collins, L., Richards, G. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, Pteropus poliocephalus during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. 2002. Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus as a threatened species in NSW: adjusting to a long-term vision. Pp. 273-284 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Fleming, T. H. and Eby, P. in press. Ecology of bat migration. In: Ecology of Bats. Ed by T. H. Kunz and M. B. Fenton. University of Chicago Press.
Flora and Fauna Guarantee - Scientific Advisory Committee 2001. Final recommendation on a nomination for listing - Pteropus poliocephalus Temminck 1825 - Grey-headed Flying-fox. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne.
Ford, D. 2002. An historical perspective of changing community attitudes towards Flying-foxes in Sydney. Pp. 146-159 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Gough, J. 2002. The increasing need for netting fruit orchards against bat and bird damage and the increasing problems in affording netting. Pp. 56-57 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Grigg, G. 2002. Conservation benefit from harvesting kangaroos: status report at the start of a new millenium. Pp 53-76 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Hall, L. S. 2002. Management of flying fox camps: what have we learnt in the last twenty five years? Pp. 215-224 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1986. Proceedings of the First National Flying fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 73-157.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. 2000 Flying Foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. UNSW Press: Sydney.
House, S. 1997. Reproductive biology of eucalypts. Pp. 30-54 In Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems Ed by J. E. Williams and J. C. Z. Woinarski. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Hughes, J. 2002. Survival, inquiry and sophistication in managing Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pp. 142-145 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hughes, R. L. 1987. Concluding remarks to the First National Flying Fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10:157.
Ireland, G. 1989. Millions of dollars of damage caused. BGF Bulletin 53: 21.
Isaac, N. and Mace, G. M. 1998 The IUCN criteria review: report of the scoping workshop. Gland: IUCN.
IUCN. 1994 IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland.
Kingston, M. B., Turnbill, M. B., Hall, J. W., Boulton, S. C. and Storey, R. J. 1999 Tweed Vegetation Management Plan. Murwillumbah. NSW: Tweed Shire Council.
Larsen, E., Beck, M. and Hartnell, E. and Crunaune 2002. Neighbours of Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: Community Attitudes Survey 2001. Pp. 225-239 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Law, B. S., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L., and Tweedie, T. 2000. The flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-78.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. Pp 1-132. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D. and Dickman, C. (eds.) 2002 A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman and Australian Museum, Mosman.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District, New South Wales, since settlement. Australian Journal Ecology 13: 67-92.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the rainforest remnants of north-east NSW. Pp. 247-277 In Australia's Ever-Changing Forests III Ed by J. Dargavel. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University: Canberra.
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Sherwin, W. B. 2002. Modelling mammalian extinction and forecasting recovery: koalas at Iluka (NSW, Australia). Biological Conservation 106: 101-13.
Lunney, D., Urquhart, C. A. and Reed, P. (eds) 1990 Koala Summit. Managing koalas in NSW. Proceedings of a conference held at the Univ. of Sydney 7-8 November 1988. (NSW) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Martin, L., Kennedy, J. H., Little, L., Luckhoff, H. C., O'Brien, G. M., Pow, C. S. T., Towers, P. A., Waldon, A. K. and Wang, D. Y. 1995. The reproductive biology of Australian flying-foxes (genus Pteropus). Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 67: 167-184.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. P. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus, and the implications of culling. Pp. 91-108 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
McLachlan, B. 2002. NPWS operational management of commercial crop damage by flying-foxes - licensing in practice a far north coast perspective. Pp. 80-83 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Menkhorst, P. W. (ed) 1995. Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus Temminck, 1825. Pp. 156-158. in Mammals of Victoria. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Menkhorst, P. W. and Dixon J. M. 1985. Influxes of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) to Victoria in 1981 and 1982. Australian Mammalogy 8:117-121.
Nelson, J. E., 1965. Movements of Australian flying-foxes (Pteropodidae: Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology. 13: 53-73.
O'Brien, G. M. 1993. Seasonal reproduction in flying-foxes, reviewed in the context of other tropical mammals. Reproduction Fertility and Development, 5: 499-521.
Parry-Jones, K. A. 1993. The movements of Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New South Wales, Sydney.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1991. Food selection by Grey-headed flying-foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) occupying a summer colony site near Gosford, N. S. W. Wildlife Research 18: 111-124.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1992. Movements of Grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-340.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee. M. L. 2001. Factors affecting the occupation of a colony site in Sydney, New South Wales by the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (Pteropodidae). Austral Ecology 26: 47-55.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Bulletin of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 53: 1-80.
Richards, G. (ed) 2000. Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying Fox. Australasian Bat Society, Canberra.
Richards, G. 2002. The development of strategies for management of the flying-fox colony at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Pp. 196-201 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Richards, G. and Hall, L. S. 1994 An Assessment of the Conservation Status of Australia's Bat Fauna. Report to the Biodiversity Group of Environment Australia, Canberra.
Rogers, J. 2002. The economic and social implications of flying-fox predation on the north coast of NSW. Pp. 58-62 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Slack, J. (ed) 1990 Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries. Wollongbar, NSW.
Slack, J. and Reilly, T. 1994. The economics of orchard netting. Pp 42-54 in Bird and Bat Control for Horticulture and Aquaculture, edited by R. Turner. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Slack, J. and Ullio, L. 2000. NSW stonefruit. Deciduous fruit program. Pp 28-29 in Farms Budget Handbook 2000, NSW Agriculture. Orange, NSW.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of roost sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Peteropus poliocephalus on the north coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective. Pp. 202-214 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit-bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research 18: 463-468.
Teagle, S. 2002. Flying fox Consultative Committee - formation, outcomes and future strategies. Pp. 109-116 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. Biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poloiocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1: 151-164.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Sustainable management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. In A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery (eds), The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Pp 31-35. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Tidemann, C. R., Kelson, S. L. and Jamieson, G. 1997. Flying-fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia - incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biologist 10: 179-186.
Turner, R. (ed) 1994 Bird and Bat Control for Horticulture and Aquaculture. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Ullio, L. 1992. Flying-foxes and fruit growing around Sydney. Pp 8-13 in Proceedings of a Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. edited by K. Blade, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service. Turramurra, NSW.
Ullio, L. 2002. To net or not to net! That is the question, but is it the answer? Pp 70-76 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Waples, K. 2002. Review of the NPWS policy on the mitigation of commercial crop damage by flying-foxes. Pp 39-46 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Webb, N. and Tidemann, C. 1995. Hybridisation between black ( Pteropus alecto) and grey-headed ( Grey-headed Flying-fox) flying-foxes (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Australian Mammalogy 18: 19-26
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying fox camps. Pp. 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Wilson, B. A., Neldner, V. J. and Accad, A. in press. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. Australian Rangelands.
Wilson, J. and Bennett, A. F. 1999. Patchiness of a floral resource: flowering of red ironbark Eucalyptus tricarpa in a Box and Ironbark forest. Victorian Naturalist 116: 48-53.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal