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On 4 May 2001, the NSW Scientific Committee made a Final Determination to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus as a Vulnerable species in New South Wales on Schedule 2 of the Threatened Species Conservation Act. The Committee made this determination because, in its view, the species ‘is likely to become endangered unless the circumstances and factors threatening its survival or evolutionary development cease to operate’ (TSC Act, Section 14). In this paper we first describe the procedures for nominating species for inclusion on the Schedules of the TSC Act and the role of the Scientific Committee in the assessment and listing process. We then chronicle the steps taken in the listing of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, and briefly review the evidence on which listing was based. This evidence included data on the overall decline in numbers of the Grey-headed Flying-fox in New South Wales, numerical declines at regularly-visited camps, continuing loss of habitat, and culling. Listing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species triggers the need for preparation of a Recovery Plan. By having regard to the biological, social and economic consequences of making the plan, it should be possible to obtain broad participation of stakeholders to achieve effective species recovery.

References cited in the text and used in the Final Determination are given in Appendix 1. Others are given below.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A., 1996 Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Science: Oxford.
Diamond, J. M., 1987. Extant unless proven extinct? Or, extinct unless proven extant? Conservation Biology 1: 77-79.
Dickman, C. R., 1996. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73 in Back from the brink: refining the threatened species recovery process. Ed. by S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton.
Dickman, C. R., 1997. The nominations process under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 19-25 in On the brink: your bush, their habitat, our Act. Ed. by K. Brebach. Nature Conservation Council: Sydney.
Doremus, H. and Pagel, J. E., 2001. Why listing may be forever: perspectives on delisting under the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 15: 1258-1268.
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. (eds), 1999 The 1999 Action Plan for Australian bats. Environment Australia: Canberra.
Franklin, J. F., 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202-205.
Gärdenfors, U., 2001. Classifying threatened species at national versus global levels. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 511-516.
Parnaby, H., 2000. Comments on the application of IUCN Red List Categories for evaluating the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox in NSW. In Proceedings of a workshop to assess the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. eds by G. Richards. Australasian Bat Society: Canberra.
Quammen, D., 1996 The song of the Dodo. Scribner: New York.
Ratcliffe, F. N., 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Bulletin of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 53: 1-80.
Schorger, A. W., 1955 The Passenger Pigeon: its natural history and extinction. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison.
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References

References cited in the text and used in the Final Determination are given in Appendix 1. Others are given below.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A., 1996 Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Science: Oxford.
Diamond, J. M., 1987. Extant unless proven extinct? Or, extinct unless proven extant? Conservation Biology 1: 77-79.
Dickman, C. R., 1996. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73 in Back from the brink: refining the threatened species recovery process. Ed. by S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty and Sons: Chipping Norton.
Dickman, C. R., 1997. The nominations process under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 19-25 in On the brink: your bush, their habitat, our Act. Ed. by K. Brebach. Nature Conservation Council: Sydney.
Doremus, H. and Pagel, J. E., 2001. Why listing may be forever: perspectives on delisting under the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Conservation Biology 15: 1258-1268.
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. (eds), 1999 The 1999 Action Plan for Australian bats. Environment Australia: Canberra.
Franklin, J. F., 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202-205.
Gärdenfors, U., 2001. Classifying threatened species at national versus global levels. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 511-516.
Parnaby, H., 2000. Comments on the application of IUCN Red List Categories for evaluating the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox in NSW. In Proceedings of a workshop to assess the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. eds by G. Richards. Australasian Bat Society: Canberra.
Quammen, D., 1996 The song of the Dodo. Scribner: New York.
Ratcliffe, F. N., 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Bulletin of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 53: 1-80.
Schorger, A. W., 1955 The Passenger Pigeon: its natural history and extinction. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison.
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