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Flying-foxes come into conflict with fruit growers when they raid fruit crops in response to limited native food resources. A standard technique used by fruit growers to deter flying-foxes has been to shoot the animals as they enter the orchard. This activity has been regulated by National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) since the protection of flying-foxes in 1986. A NPWS Policy was developed on this issue in 1998. It provides for licences to be issued to harm a limited number of protected species by gunshot only. The policy does not cover threatened species.

The recent change in the conservation status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox from protected to vulnerable means that the NPWS policy must be adapted to address damage mitigation of a threatened species. The NPWS has considered a number of alternatives in its management strategy including ending licensed harm to flying-foxes, issuing licences under the Threatened Species legislation and encouraging farmers to prepare property management plans. The preferred NPWS position is to continue to issue licences under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 for a further three years during which time farmers are expected to take all reasonable means to adopt non-lethal deterrent strategies. Important aspects of this new policy are ensuring that licensed damage does not constitute a threat to the long term survival of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, and improving compliance with the policy so that all harm may be quantified and the impact on the State-wide population properly assessed and managed.

Antcliff, S. 1998 The Grey-headed flying-fox and the Lower Blue Mountains Plateau Fruit Growers: multiple perspectives analysis. Report for University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury Campus.
Birt, P. 2000. Summary information on the status of the Grey-headed ( Pteropus poliocephalus) and Black ( P.alecto) Flying-foxes. Pp 80-88 in Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, edited by G. Richards http://www.batcall.csu.edu.au/abs/ghff/ghffproceedings.pdf.
Eby, P. 1995 The Biology and Management of flying-foxes in NSW. Species management report number 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31:240-253.
Loebel, M. R. and Sanewski, G. 1987. Flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) as orchard pests. Australian Mammalogy 10:147-50.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. C. 1987. Crop protection and management of flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropopodidae) Australian Mammalogy: 10: 75-81.
Loebel, M. R. and Sanewski, G. 1987. Flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) as orchard pests. Australian Mammalogy: 10: 147-150.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000 The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Pp 1-132. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. New South Wales NPWS, Hurstville.
Mandelc, F. 2000. Annual review of the NPWS policy on flying-fox and mitigation of commercial crop damage for the 1999-2000 fruit growing season. Report for NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
McIlwee, A. and Martin, L. 2002. On the intrinsic capacity for increase of Australian flying-foxes ( Pteropus spp, Megachiroptera). Australian Zoologist 32: 76-100.
Richards, G. 2000. Comments on the extent of flying-fox culling in orchards. Pp 99-100 in Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, edited by G. Richards. http://www.batcall.csu.edu.au/abs/ghff/ghffproceedings.pdf.
Slack, J. 1990. Flying-fox damage in low-chill stonefruit orchards. Pp 55-60 in Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, edited by J. M. Slack. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries, Wollongbar, NSW.
Tidemann, R., Kelson, S.l. and Jamieson, G. 1997. Flying-fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia - incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biologist 10:179-86.
Wahl, D. 1994 The management of flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.) in New South Wales. MS Thesis for Applied Ecology Research Group. University of Canberra.
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References

Antcliff, S. 1998 The Grey-headed flying-fox and the Lower Blue Mountains Plateau Fruit Growers: multiple perspectives analysis. Report for University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury Campus.
Birt, P. 2000. Summary information on the status of the Grey-headed ( Pteropus poliocephalus) and Black ( P.alecto) Flying-foxes. Pp 80-88 in Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, edited by G. Richards http://www.batcall.csu.edu.au/abs/ghff/ghffproceedings.pdf.
Eby, P. 1995 The Biology and Management of flying-foxes in NSW. Species management report number 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31:240-253.
Loebel, M. R. and Sanewski, G. 1987. Flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) as orchard pests. Australian Mammalogy 10:147-50.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. C. 1987. Crop protection and management of flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropopodidae) Australian Mammalogy: 10: 75-81.
Loebel, M. R. and Sanewski, G. 1987. Flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) as orchard pests. Australian Mammalogy: 10: 147-150.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000 The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Pp 1-132. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. New South Wales NPWS, Hurstville.
Mandelc, F. 2000. Annual review of the NPWS policy on flying-fox and mitigation of commercial crop damage for the 1999-2000 fruit growing season. Report for NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
McIlwee, A. and Martin, L. 2002. On the intrinsic capacity for increase of Australian flying-foxes ( Pteropus spp, Megachiroptera). Australian Zoologist 32: 76-100.
Richards, G. 2000. Comments on the extent of flying-fox culling in orchards. Pp 99-100 in Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, edited by G. Richards. http://www.batcall.csu.edu.au/abs/ghff/ghffproceedings.pdf.
Slack, J. 1990. Flying-fox damage in low-chill stonefruit orchards. Pp 55-60 in Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, edited by J. M. Slack. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries, Wollongbar, NSW.
Tidemann, R., Kelson, S.l. and Jamieson, G. 1997. Flying-fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia - incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biologist 10:179-86.
Wahl, D. 1994 The management of flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.) in New South Wales. MS Thesis for Applied Ecology Research Group. University of Canberra.
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