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No research funds have been made available to produce aversion agents and/or tactics to reduce the need for orchardists to cull flying-foxes to protect their crops. This has occurred despite many years of effort by growers to attract research funds from government and industry groups. It appears the research needed to manage flying-foxes on crops is far from complete and there has been no summary or correlation of the many research papers published that suggests a way forward. Now that the Grey-headed Flying-fox has been listed as Vulnerable, I have the fear that orchardists will lose out as some bat carers and researchers may not support research into aversion agents. Orchardists have been badly let down on all counts as research funds have not been forthcoming, and they are being victimised and portrayed in the media as enemies of the environment. Orchardists are, in fact, feeding flying-foxes in times of natural habitat food scarcity. A reward we and the community at large could get is the release of funds for research into aversion agents, coupled with funding for research into alternative food sources for flying-foxes. Orchardists did not create the problems that face them. Orchardists are not the bad guys. We are as much affected as the flying-foxes. I believe aversion agents should be thoroughly researched. It will take a combined effort of many groups to lobby Government for this to be realised.

Amery, R. 1995. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 1996. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 1999. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 2001a. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group, From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 2001b. Letter to Peta Seaton, Shadow Minister for the Environment. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Blade, K. (ed) 1992 Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Comensoli, P. 2002. The impact upon fruit growers of a decision to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 53-55 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Debus, R. 1996. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Environment.
Debus, R. 1999. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Environment.
Debus, B. 2001. Letter to Peta Seaton, NSW Shadow Minister for Environment. From the NSW Minister for Environment.
Dickman, C. and Fleming, M. 2002. Pest, or Passenger Pigeon? The New South Wales Scientific Committee's assessment of the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pp. 20-28 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed Flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-559.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Environment Protection Authority of NSW. 1997 New South Wales State of the Environment. Environment Protection Authority of NSW, Chatswood, NSW.
Gough, J. 2002. The increasing need for netting fruit orchards against bat and bird damage and the increasing problems in affording netting. Pp. 56-57 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1986. Proceedings of the First National Flying fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 73-157.
Jones, R. 2001. Letter to J. Bicknell Orchard Industry Action Group from The Honourable Richard Jones, Member Legislative Council of NSW.
Oldfield, A. C. 1997 Food odour preference behaviour in three Australian Pteropus species (Pteropodidae). PhD Thesis. School of Resource and Environmental Management, Australian National University, Canberra.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1992. Movements of Grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-340.
Rayner, A. C. 1995 The chemistry of 2a,4-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole, a possum urinary metabolite and chemical repellents for flying-foxes. PhD Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Queensland, St. Lucia.
Richards, G. C. and Hall, L. S. 1998. The conservation biology of Australian bats. Are recent advances solving our problems? Pp. 271-281 in Bat Biology and Conservation, edited by T. H. Kunz and P. A. Racey. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.
Rogers, J. 2002. The Economic and Social Implications of Flying-fox Predation on the North Coast of NSW. Pp. 58-62 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Slack, J. (ed) 1990 Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries. Wollongbar, NSW.
Slack, J. and Reilly, T. 1990. Cost and returns of netting low-chill stonefruit orchards. Pp 61-65 in Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, edited by J. Slack, NSW Agriculture and Fisheries. Wollongbar, NSW.
Slack, J. and Ullio, L. 2000. NSW stonefruit. Deciduous fruit program. Pp 28-29 in Farms Budget Handbook 2000, NSW Agriculture. Orange, NSW.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of Roost Sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Peteropus poliocephalus on the North Coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective. Pp. 202-214 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit-bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research 18: 463-468.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. Biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poloiocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1, 151-164.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Sustainable Management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp 31-35. in The Action Plan for Australian Bats. edited by A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery, Environment Australia, Canberra.
Turner, R. (ed) 1994 Bird and bat control for horticulture and agriculture: seminar proceedings. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Ullio, L. 1992. Flying-foxes and fruit growing around Sydney. Pp 8-13 in Proceedings of a Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. edited by K. Blade, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service. Turramurra, NSW.
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying fox camps Pp. 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
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References

Amery, R. 1995. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 1996. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 1999. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 2001a. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group, From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Amery, R. 2001b. Letter to Peta Seaton, Shadow Minister for the Environment. From the NSW Minister for Agriculture.
Blade, K. (ed) 1992 Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Comensoli, P. 2002. The impact upon fruit growers of a decision to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 53-55 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Debus, R. 1996. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Environment.
Debus, R. 1999. Letter to John Bicknell, Orchard Industry Action Group. From the NSW Minister for Environment.
Debus, B. 2001. Letter to Peta Seaton, NSW Shadow Minister for Environment. From the NSW Minister for Environment.
Dickman, C. and Fleming, M. 2002. Pest, or Passenger Pigeon? The New South Wales Scientific Committee's assessment of the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pp. 20-28 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed Flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-559.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Environment Protection Authority of NSW. 1997 New South Wales State of the Environment. Environment Protection Authority of NSW, Chatswood, NSW.
Gough, J. 2002. The increasing need for netting fruit orchards against bat and bird damage and the increasing problems in affording netting. Pp. 56-57 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1986. Proceedings of the First National Flying fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 73-157.
Jones, R. 2001. Letter to J. Bicknell Orchard Industry Action Group from The Honourable Richard Jones, Member Legislative Council of NSW.
Oldfield, A. C. 1997 Food odour preference behaviour in three Australian Pteropus species (Pteropodidae). PhD Thesis. School of Resource and Environmental Management, Australian National University, Canberra.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1992. Movements of Grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-340.
Rayner, A. C. 1995 The chemistry of 2a,4-dihydroxy-1,8-cineole, a possum urinary metabolite and chemical repellents for flying-foxes. PhD Thesis, Department of Chemistry, University of Queensland, St. Lucia.
Richards, G. C. and Hall, L. S. 1998. The conservation biology of Australian bats. Are recent advances solving our problems? Pp. 271-281 in Bat Biology and Conservation, edited by T. H. Kunz and P. A. Racey. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D. C.
Rogers, J. 2002. The Economic and Social Implications of Flying-fox Predation on the North Coast of NSW. Pp. 58-62 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Slack, J. (ed) 1990 Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries. Wollongbar, NSW.
Slack, J. and Reilly, T. 1990. Cost and returns of netting low-chill stonefruit orchards. Pp 61-65 in Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings, Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, edited by J. Slack, NSW Agriculture and Fisheries. Wollongbar, NSW.
Slack, J. and Ullio, L. 2000. NSW stonefruit. Deciduous fruit program. Pp 28-29 in Farms Budget Handbook 2000, NSW Agriculture. Orange, NSW.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of Roost Sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Peteropus poliocephalus on the North Coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective. Pp. 202-214 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit-bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research 18: 463-468.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. Biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poloiocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1, 151-164.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Sustainable Management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp 31-35. in The Action Plan for Australian Bats. edited by A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery, Environment Australia, Canberra.
Turner, R. (ed) 1994 Bird and bat control for horticulture and agriculture: seminar proceedings. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane.
Ullio, L. 1992. Flying-foxes and fruit growing around Sydney. Pp 8-13 in Proceedings of a Fruit Crop Protection Seminar. edited by K. Blade, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service. Turramurra, NSW.
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying fox camps Pp. 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
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