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This paper outlines a tree-planting scheme with the dual aim of conserving Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pteropus poliocephalus and reducing damage to fruit crops. Grey-headed Flying-foxes experience resource bottlenecks during winter and spring because of past habitat clearing and the erratic flowering of eucalypts. When there is broad-scale failure of native foods in spring, flying-foxes raid orchards for ripening exotic fruit. These events are compounded by spring births in flying-foxes and potentially greater mortality from shooting in orchards. Dual benefits to flying-foxes and orchardists could be achieved by replanting spring flowering tree species lost from past clearing. To aid this process we develop winter and spring species lists, prioritized on the basis of past clearing and their likelihood of contributing reliable food sources for flying-foxes in the future. We discuss ideas relating to where trees should be planted, and recommend that areas lacking commercial orchards could be targeted for spring plantings and that local decoy plantings should be avoided.

Benson, D. H. and Howell, J. 1990 Taken for Granted: the Bushland of Sydney and its Suburbs. Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst.
Bridges, R. G. 1983 Integrated logging and regeneration in the silvertop ash-stringybark forests of the Eden region. Research paper No. 2, Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney.
Clemson A. 1985 Honey and Pollen Flora. Department of Agriculture New South Wales, Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Eby, P. 1990. Seed dispersal and seasonal movements by Grey-headed Flying foxes and the implications for management. Pp. 28-33 in Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings (ed J. Slack). Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, Wollongbar.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of grey-headed flying foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-59.
Eby, P. 1995 The biology and management of flying foxes in New South Wales. Species Management Report Number 18, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Eby, P. 1998. An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus in Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 443-56.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L., and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Floyd, A. G. 1989 Rainforest Trees of Mainland Southeastern Australia. Inkata Press, Sydney.
Holmes, G. 1987 Avifauna of the Big Scrub Region. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R. P. 1987. Forest phenology and its effects on foraging behaviour and selection of habitat by the yellow-bellied glider, Petaurus australis Shaw. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 371-84.
Law, B. S., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L., and Tweedie, T. 2000. The flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-78.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox ( Pteropus poliocephalus: megachiroptera), and the implications of culling. Pp 91-108 in The management of Grey-headed Flying-foxes as a threatened species in New South Wales edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Norton, T., 1996. Conserving biological diversity in Australia's temperate eucalypt forests. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 21-33.
Parry-Jones, K. and Augee, M. L. 1991. Food selection by grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) occupying a summer colony site near Gosford, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 111-24.
Porter, J. W. 1978. Relationships between flowering and honey production of red ironbark, Eucalyptus sideroxylon (A. Cunn.) Benth., and climate in the Bendigo district of Victoria. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29: 815-29.
Sivertsen, D. P. 1995. Habitat loss - its nature and effects (including case studies from New South Wales). Pages 29-42 in Conserving Biodiversity: Threats and Solutions, edited by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Somerville, D. 1999 Floral Resource Database for the NSW Apiary Industry. Final Report No. 99/174 to Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, ACT.
State of the Environment Advisory Council. 1996 Australia, State of the Environment 1996. Report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment. CSIRO, Canberra.
Steller, D. C. 1986. The dietary energy and nitrogen requirements of the grey-headed flying fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Temminck) (Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 34: 339-50.
Wilson, J. and Bennett, A. F. 1999. Patchiness of a floral resource: flowering of red ironbark Eucalyptus tricarpa in a Box and Ironbark forest. Victorian Naturalist 116: 48-53.
Wykes, G. R. 1947 Investigations into nectar secretion of species of the genus Eucalyptus, and the possible relationship of starch stored in the sapwood to the honey flow. MSc Thesis, University of Melbourne.
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References

Benson, D. H. and Howell, J. 1990 Taken for Granted: the Bushland of Sydney and its Suburbs. Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst.
Bridges, R. G. 1983 Integrated logging and regeneration in the silvertop ash-stringybark forests of the Eden region. Research paper No. 2, Forestry Commission of New South Wales, Sydney.
Clemson A. 1985 Honey and Pollen Flora. Department of Agriculture New South Wales, Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Eby, P. 1990. Seed dispersal and seasonal movements by Grey-headed Flying foxes and the implications for management. Pp. 28-33 in Flying-fox Workshop Proceedings (ed J. Slack). Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, Wollongbar.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of grey-headed flying foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-59.
Eby, P. 1995 The biology and management of flying foxes in New South Wales. Species Management Report Number 18, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Eby, P. 1998. An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus in Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 443-56.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L., and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Floyd, A. G. 1989 Rainforest Trees of Mainland Southeastern Australia. Inkata Press, Sydney.
Holmes, G. 1987 Avifauna of the Big Scrub Region. New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Kavanagh, R. P. 1987. Forest phenology and its effects on foraging behaviour and selection of habitat by the yellow-bellied glider, Petaurus australis Shaw. Australian Wildlife Research 14: 371-84.
Law, B. S., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L., and Tweedie, T. 2000. The flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-78.
Lunney, D. and Leary, T. 1988. The impact on native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega district, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 13: 67-92.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox ( Pteropus poliocephalus: megachiroptera), and the implications of culling. Pp 91-108 in The management of Grey-headed Flying-foxes as a threatened species in New South Wales edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman.
Norton, T., 1996. Conserving biological diversity in Australia's temperate eucalypt forests. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 21-33.
Parry-Jones, K. and Augee, M. L. 1991. Food selection by grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) occupying a summer colony site near Gosford, New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 111-24.
Porter, J. W. 1978. Relationships between flowering and honey production of red ironbark, Eucalyptus sideroxylon (A. Cunn.) Benth., and climate in the Bendigo district of Victoria. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 29: 815-29.
Sivertsen, D. P. 1995. Habitat loss - its nature and effects (including case studies from New South Wales). Pages 29-42 in Conserving Biodiversity: Threats and Solutions, edited by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Somerville, D. 1999 Floral Resource Database for the NSW Apiary Industry. Final Report No. 99/174 to Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, ACT.
State of the Environment Advisory Council. 1996 Australia, State of the Environment 1996. Report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment. CSIRO, Canberra.
Steller, D. C. 1986. The dietary energy and nitrogen requirements of the grey-headed flying fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Temminck) (Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 34: 339-50.
Wilson, J. and Bennett, A. F. 1999. Patchiness of a floral resource: flowering of red ironbark Eucalyptus tricarpa in a Box and Ironbark forest. Victorian Naturalist 116: 48-53.
Wykes, G. R. 1947 Investigations into nectar secretion of species of the genus Eucalyptus, and the possible relationship of starch stored in the sapwood to the honey flow. MSc Thesis, University of Melbourne.
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