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The Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus is a large (to 1000 g) bat, endemic to coastal, south-eastern Australia (Queensland, NSW, Victoria). Sustainable management of P. poliocephalus, recently listed at State and Federal level as Vulnerable, must ensure its conservation in perpetuity - and cost-effective and environmentally and socially acceptable ways of minimising conflicts with people in rural and urban contexts. Exclusion netting can achieve this in some, although not all, orchard situations but is usually inappropriate for managing camp occupation. There is a need for the development of approaches, other than netting, to suit a variety of problem situations. Attainment of this goal has been constrained by factionalisation of stakeholders at community and government levels, inadequate resourcing and ineffective evaluation and communication. Little attention has been directed toward the apparent ability of flying-foxes to learn - and, hence, the possibility of training flocks to avoid certain areas. Potential effects could be long-lasting given the P. poliocephalus life-span of at least 13 years. Adequate funding, coupled with effective communication across communities and governments, could enable development and uptake of much-needed, best-practice flying-fox management through participatory trials and rigorous and transparent monitoring.

Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. 1998. Urban Flying-foxes. Nature Australia, Spring 1998: 55-59.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment Victoria. 2001 Options for the Establishment of an Alternative Campsite for the Grey-Headed Flying-Fox, Pteropus poliocephalus, in Melbourne - Executive Summary. http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/web%2Froot%2Fdomino%2Fcm_da%2Fnrenpa.nsf/frameset/NRE+Plants+and+Animals?OpenDocument&[/WEB/ROOT/DOMINO/CM_DA/NRECPA.NSF/aa87793615edb5d 24a256a61000b5d9a/913248a053bbae784a256ae1000210b3?OpenDocument] (6 December 2001).
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. (eds.) 1999 The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environ ment Australia, Canberra.
Eby, P. 1991a. Finger-winged night workers: managing forests to conserve the role of Grey-headed Flying Foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers. Pp. 91-100 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Eby, P. 1991b. Seasonal movements of grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-559.
Eby, P. 1995 The Biology and Management of Flying-foxes in NSW. Species Management Report 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P. 1998. An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus (Megachiroptera) in Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 443-456.
Environment Australia. 2002. http://www.ea.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/index.html (6 June 2002).
Murphy, D. D. and Noon, B. D. 1991. Coping with uncertainty in wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 55: 773-782.
Palmer, C., Price, O. and Bach, C. 2000. Foraging ecology of the black flying fox ( Pteropus alecto) in the seasonal tropics of the Northern Territory, Australia. Wildlife Research 27: 169-178.
Palmer, C. and Woinarski, J. C. Z. 1999. Seasonal roosts and foraging movements of the black flying fox ( Pteropus alecto) in the Northern Territory: resource tracking in a landscape mosaic. Wildlife Research 26: 823-838.
Productivity Commission. 2001 Harnessing Private Sector Conservation of Biodiversity, Commission Research Paper. AusInfo, Canberra.
Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001 Managing Flying-fox Colonies in Urban Areas. QPWS Policy WL - 3.2.3. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 53: 1-81.
Sinclair, E. A., Webb, N. J., Marchant, A. D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1996. Genetic variation in the Little Red Flying-fox, Pteropus scapulatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): implications for management. Biological Conservation 76: 45-50.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. The biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1: 151-164.
Tidemann, C., Kelson, S. and Jamieson, G. 1997a. Flying fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia - incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biologist 10: 177-184.
Tidemann, C. R. and Vardon, M. J. 1997. Pests, pestilence, pollen and protein: the need for community-based management of flying-foxes in Australia. Australian Biologist 10: 77-83.
Tidemann, C. R., Vardon, M. J., Nelson, J. E., Speare, R. and Gleeson, L. J. 1997b. Health and conservation implications of Australian bat Lyssavirus.Australian Zoologist 30: 369-376.
Tidemann, C. R., M. J. Vardon, R. A. Loughland and P. J. Brocklehurst. 1999. Dry season camps of flying-foxes ( Pteropus spp.) in Kakadu World Heritage Area, north Australia. Journal of Zoology, London 247: 155-163.
Vardon, M. J., Brocklehurst, P. J., Woinarski, J. C. Z., Cunningham, R. B., Donnelly, C. F. and Tidemann, C. R. 2001. Seasonal habitat use by flying-foxes, Pteropus alecto and P. scapulatus (Megachiroptera), in monsoonal Australia. Journal of Zoology, London 253: 523-535.
Vardon, M. J., Simpson, B. K., Sherwell, D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1997. Flying-foxes and tourists: a conservation dilemma in northern Australia. Australian Zoologist 30: 310-315.
Walters, C. 1986 Adaptive management of renewable resources. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Webb, N. J. and Tidemann, C. R. 1996. Mobility of Australian flying-foxes, Pteropus spp. (Megachiroptera): evidence from genetic variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 263: 497-502.
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References

Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. 1998. Urban Flying-foxes. Nature Australia, Spring 1998: 55-59.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment Victoria. 2001 Options for the Establishment of an Alternative Campsite for the Grey-Headed Flying-Fox, Pteropus poliocephalus, in Melbourne - Executive Summary. http://www.nre.vic.gov.au/web%2Froot%2Fdomino%2Fcm_da%2Fnrenpa.nsf/frameset/NRE+Plants+and+Animals?OpenDocument&[/WEB/ROOT/DOMINO/CM_DA/NRECPA.NSF/aa87793615edb5d 24a256a61000b5d9a/913248a053bbae784a256ae1000210b3?OpenDocument] (6 December 2001).
Duncan, A., Baker, G. B. and Montgomery, N. (eds.) 1999 The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Environ ment Australia, Canberra.
Eby, P. 1991a. Finger-winged night workers: managing forests to conserve the role of Grey-headed Flying Foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers. Pp. 91-100 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna, edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Eby, P. 1991b. Seasonal movements of grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-559.
Eby, P. 1995 The Biology and Management of Flying-foxes in NSW. Species Management Report 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P. 1998. An analysis of diet specialization in frugivorous Pteropus poliocephalus (Megachiroptera) in Australian subtropical rainforest. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 443-456.
Environment Australia. 2002. http://www.ea.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/index.html (6 June 2002).
Murphy, D. D. and Noon, B. D. 1991. Coping with uncertainty in wildlife management. Journal of Wildlife Management 55: 773-782.
Palmer, C., Price, O. and Bach, C. 2000. Foraging ecology of the black flying fox ( Pteropus alecto) in the seasonal tropics of the Northern Territory, Australia. Wildlife Research 27: 169-178.
Palmer, C. and Woinarski, J. C. Z. 1999. Seasonal roosts and foraging movements of the black flying fox ( Pteropus alecto) in the Northern Territory: resource tracking in a landscape mosaic. Wildlife Research 26: 823-838.
Productivity Commission. 2001 Harnessing Private Sector Conservation of Biodiversity, Commission Research Paper. AusInfo, Canberra.
Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. 2001 Managing Flying-fox Colonies in Urban Areas. QPWS Policy WL - 3.2.3. Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, Brisbane.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 53: 1-81.
Sinclair, E. A., Webb, N. J., Marchant, A. D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1996. Genetic variation in the Little Red Flying-fox, Pteropus scapulatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae): implications for management. Biological Conservation 76: 45-50.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. The biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1: 151-164.
Tidemann, C., Kelson, S. and Jamieson, G. 1997a. Flying fox damage to orchard fruit in Australia - incidence, extent and economic impact. Australian Biologist 10: 177-184.
Tidemann, C. R. and Vardon, M. J. 1997. Pests, pestilence, pollen and protein: the need for community-based management of flying-foxes in Australia. Australian Biologist 10: 77-83.
Tidemann, C. R., Vardon, M. J., Nelson, J. E., Speare, R. and Gleeson, L. J. 1997b. Health and conservation implications of Australian bat Lyssavirus.Australian Zoologist 30: 369-376.
Tidemann, C. R., M. J. Vardon, R. A. Loughland and P. J. Brocklehurst. 1999. Dry season camps of flying-foxes ( Pteropus spp.) in Kakadu World Heritage Area, north Australia. Journal of Zoology, London 247: 155-163.
Vardon, M. J., Brocklehurst, P. J., Woinarski, J. C. Z., Cunningham, R. B., Donnelly, C. F. and Tidemann, C. R. 2001. Seasonal habitat use by flying-foxes, Pteropus alecto and P. scapulatus (Megachiroptera), in monsoonal Australia. Journal of Zoology, London 253: 523-535.
Vardon, M. J., Simpson, B. K., Sherwell, D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1997. Flying-foxes and tourists: a conservation dilemma in northern Australia. Australian Zoologist 30: 310-315.
Walters, C. 1986 Adaptive management of renewable resources. McGraw-Hill, New York.
Webb, N. J. and Tidemann, C. R. 1996. Mobility of Australian flying-foxes, Pteropus spp. (Megachiroptera): evidence from genetic variation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 263: 497-502.
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