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Three previously unknown viruses have been recently described in flying-foxes. Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) are regarded as emerging diseases of potential importance to both animal and public health. While there is no evidence that Hendra or Menangle virus infections are transmitted directly to humans, direct contact with an ABL-infected flying-foxes presents a serious human health risk from a saliva-contaminated bite, scratch or mucous membrane. Fruit is not regarded as a mode of transmission, but for aesthetic and general hygiene reasons, eating fruit that has been damaged or partially eaten by any animal is not recommended.

Allworth, A., Murray, K. and Morgan, J. 1996. A human case of encephalitis due to a lyssavirus recently identified in fruit bats. Communicable Disease Intelligence 20: 504.
Anon. 1996. Prevention of human lyssavirus infection. Communicable Disease Intelligence 20: 505-507.
Field, H., Barratt, P., Hughes, R., Shield, J. and Sullivan, N. 2000. A fatal case of Hendra virus infection in a horse in north Queensland: clinical and epidemiological features. Australian Veterinary Journal 78: 279-280.
Field, H., Young, P., Johara Mohd Yob, Mills, J., Hall, L. and Mackenzie, J. 2001. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes and Infection 3: 315-22.
Fraser, G., Hooper, P., Lunt, R., Gould, A., Gleeson, L., Hyatt, A., Russell, G. and Kattenbelt, J. 1996. Encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus in flying-foxes in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2.
Gould, A., AD., H., Lunt, R., Kattenbelt, J., Hengstberger, S. and Blacksell, S. 1998. Characterisation of a novel lyssavirus isolated from Pteropid bats in Australia. Virus Research 54: 165-87.
Gould, A., Kattenbelt, J., Hyatt, A., Gumley, S. and Lunt, R. 1999. Coding potential and phylogenetic analyses of the Australian bat lyssaviruses and their relationship to classic rabies. Pp. 132 in Proceedings XIth International Congress of Virology, International Union of Microbiological Societies: Sydney Convention Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney.
Halpin, K., Young, P., Field, H. and Mackenzie, J. 2000. Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus. Journal of General Virology 81: 1927-1932.
Hanna, J., Carney, I., Smith, G., Tannenberg, A., Deverill, J., Botha, J., Serafin, I., Harrower, B., Fitzpatrick, P. and Searle, J. 2000. Australian bat lyssavirus infection: a second human case, with a long incubation period. Medical Journal of Australia 172: 597-9.
Hooper, P., Lunt, R., Gould, A., Samaratunga, H., Hyatt, A., Gleeson, L., Rodwell, B., Rupprecht, C., Smith, J. and Murray, P. 1997. A new lyssavirus-the first endemic rabies-related virus recognised in Australia. Bulletin of the Institute Pasteur 95: 209-218.
Morse, S. S. 1995. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Disease 1: 7-15.
Murray, K., Selleck, P., Hooper, P., Hyatt, A., Gould, A., Gleeson, L., Westbury, H., Hiley, L., Selvey, L., Rodwell, B. and Ketterer, P. 1995. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268: 94-97.
Philbey, A., Kirkland, P., Ross, A., Davis, R., Gleeson, A., Love, R., Daniels, P., Gould, A. and Hyatt, A. 1998. An Apparently New Virus (Family Paramyxoviridae) Infectious for Pigs, Humans and Fruit bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4: 269-271.
Rogers, R. J., Douglas, I. C., Baldock, F. C., Glanville, R. J., Seppanen, K. T., Gleeson, L. J., Selleck, P. N. and Dunn, K. J. 1996. Investigation of a second focus of equine morbillivirus infection in coastal Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal 74: 243-244.
Young, P. L., Halpin, K., Selleck, P. W., Field, H., Gravel, J. L., Kelly, M. A. and Mackenzie, J. S. 1996. Serologic evidence for the presence in Pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. Emerging Infectious Disease 2: 239-240.
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References

Allworth, A., Murray, K. and Morgan, J. 1996. A human case of encephalitis due to a lyssavirus recently identified in fruit bats. Communicable Disease Intelligence 20: 504.
Anon. 1996. Prevention of human lyssavirus infection. Communicable Disease Intelligence 20: 505-507.
Field, H., Barratt, P., Hughes, R., Shield, J. and Sullivan, N. 2000. A fatal case of Hendra virus infection in a horse in north Queensland: clinical and epidemiological features. Australian Veterinary Journal 78: 279-280.
Field, H., Young, P., Johara Mohd Yob, Mills, J., Hall, L. and Mackenzie, J. 2001. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes and Infection 3: 315-22.
Fraser, G., Hooper, P., Lunt, R., Gould, A., Gleeson, L., Hyatt, A., Russell, G. and Kattenbelt, J. 1996. Encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus in flying-foxes in Australia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2.
Gould, A., AD., H., Lunt, R., Kattenbelt, J., Hengstberger, S. and Blacksell, S. 1998. Characterisation of a novel lyssavirus isolated from Pteropid bats in Australia. Virus Research 54: 165-87.
Gould, A., Kattenbelt, J., Hyatt, A., Gumley, S. and Lunt, R. 1999. Coding potential and phylogenetic analyses of the Australian bat lyssaviruses and their relationship to classic rabies. Pp. 132 in Proceedings XIth International Congress of Virology, International Union of Microbiological Societies: Sydney Convention Centre, Darling Harbour, Sydney.
Halpin, K., Young, P., Field, H. and Mackenzie, J. 2000. Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus. Journal of General Virology 81: 1927-1932.
Hanna, J., Carney, I., Smith, G., Tannenberg, A., Deverill, J., Botha, J., Serafin, I., Harrower, B., Fitzpatrick, P. and Searle, J. 2000. Australian bat lyssavirus infection: a second human case, with a long incubation period. Medical Journal of Australia 172: 597-9.
Hooper, P., Lunt, R., Gould, A., Samaratunga, H., Hyatt, A., Gleeson, L., Rodwell, B., Rupprecht, C., Smith, J. and Murray, P. 1997. A new lyssavirus-the first endemic rabies-related virus recognised in Australia. Bulletin of the Institute Pasteur 95: 209-218.
Morse, S. S. 1995. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Disease 1: 7-15.
Murray, K., Selleck, P., Hooper, P., Hyatt, A., Gould, A., Gleeson, L., Westbury, H., Hiley, L., Selvey, L., Rodwell, B. and Ketterer, P. 1995. A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268: 94-97.
Philbey, A., Kirkland, P., Ross, A., Davis, R., Gleeson, A., Love, R., Daniels, P., Gould, A. and Hyatt, A. 1998. An Apparently New Virus (Family Paramyxoviridae) Infectious for Pigs, Humans and Fruit bats. Emerging Infectious Diseases 4: 269-271.
Rogers, R. J., Douglas, I. C., Baldock, F. C., Glanville, R. J., Seppanen, K. T., Gleeson, L. J., Selleck, P. N. and Dunn, K. J. 1996. Investigation of a second focus of equine morbillivirus infection in coastal Queensland. Australian Veterinary Journal 74: 243-244.
Young, P. L., Halpin, K., Selleck, P. W., Field, H., Gravel, J. L., Kelly, M. A. and Mackenzie, J. S. 1996. Serologic evidence for the presence in Pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. Emerging Infectious Disease 2: 239-240.
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