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Evidence of Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus decline and its listing as a vulnerable species in May 2001 means it can no longer be managed simply as a pest species. A 1988 statewide community survey of flying-foxes undertaken by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service following their protection in 1986 provides useful information that can assist current management. Community perceptions must be understood and incorporated in practice if management decisions about flying-foxes are to be effective. In 1988 flying-fox sightings (n=1303) were found to be widespread across NSW and more than half of the respondents had observed them. Twenty-three camps were identified in NSW, many located near water and human habitation. Flying-foxes were present throughout much of NSW during January while in July they were recorded only along the coastal areas of northern NSW and within the Sydney Metropolitan area. Forty-four per cent of country respondents registered a problem with flying-foxes compared to twenty-eight per cent in the non-urban Sydney Metropolitan area and only four per cent in the urban Sydney Metropolitan area. In both country NSW and non-urban Sydney Metropolitan, most orchardists surveyed recorded a problem. Flying-foxes eating fruit was a common problem identified by respondents from all areas, but aspects of their presence (such as noise and mess) was a greater problem for respondents in the urban Sydney Metropolitan area. Country NSW respondents more commonly observed flying-foxes on domestic fruit trees than on either native or orchard trees. Even though it was well known that orchardists had a problem with flying-foxes, it was not anticipated that domestic growers had a problem as well. Thus management of flying-foxes must consider their impact on domestically grown fruits alongside commercial fruit production. This points to an overemphasis in management of the commercial aspects of flying-foxes, when other community perceptions are present.

Bennett, G. 1982 Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia 1860. Facsimile Edition. The Currawong Press, Milsons Point.
Clyne, D. 1982 Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Clyne, D. 1984 More Wildlife in the Suburbs. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Conder, P. 1994 With Wings on their Fingers. An intimate view of the Flying-fox. Angus and Robertson (HarperCollins), Pymble.
Eby, P. 1991a. “Finger-winged night workers”: managing forests to conserve the role of Grey-headed flying foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers. Pp. 91-100 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Eby, P. 1991b. Seasonal movements of grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-59.
Eby, P. 1995. The biology and management of flying foxes in NSW. Species management report number 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P. 2002. Using New South Wales planning instruments to improve conservation and management of Grey-headed Flying-fox camps. Pp 240-250 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in New South Wales edited by Peggy Edy and Daniel Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. and Palmer, C. 1991. Flying foxes in rainforest remnants in northern New South Wales. Pp. 48-56 in Rainforest Remnants edited by S. Phillips. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-53.
Fleming, P. J. S. 1987. Flying-fox (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on the north coast of New South Wales: damage to stonefruit crops and control methods. Australian Mammalogy 10: 143-5.
Hall, L. S. 1990. Bat conservation in Australia. Australian Zoologist 26: 1-4.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1987. Proceedings of the First National Flying-fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 71-157.
Hall, L. and Richards, G. 2000 Flying Foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. UNSW Press, Kensington.
Lunney, D. 1990. Nature conservation debate: Bats; national parks; and state of the nation. Australian Zoologist 26: 101-7.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the rainforest remnants of north-east NSW. Pp. 247-77 in: Australia's Ever-Changing Forests III edited by J. Dargavel. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G. and Dickman, C. R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Millhouse, G. 1987 The Settlers of West Pennant Hills Valley 1799 Onwards. Hills District Historical Society, Castle Hill.
Morecroft, R. 1991 Raising Archie. Simon and Schuster, Roseville NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Pallin, N. 1990. Contributions to bat conservation by Ku-ring-gai Bat Colony Committee Inc. Australian Zoologist 26: 42-3.
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 10-20.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. L. 1992. Movements of grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-40.
Reed, P., Lunney, D., and Walker, P. 1990. Survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in New South Wales (1986-87), with an ecological interpretation of its distribution. Pp. 55-74 in Biology of the koala edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Slack, J. M. (ed) 1990 Flying Fox Workshop Proceedings. Wollongbar Agricultural Institute 22 August 1990. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries, Lismore.
Stratford, E., Mazur, N., Lunney, D. and Bennett, D. 2000. Managing the koala problem: interdisciplinary perspectives. Conservation Biology 14: 610-18.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp. 31-35 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats edited by A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Wahl, D. E. 1994 The Management of Flying-foxes. M. App. Sc. Thesis. University of Canberra, Canberra.
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References

Bennett, G. 1982 Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia 1860. Facsimile Edition. The Currawong Press, Milsons Point.
Clyne, D. 1982 Wildlife in the Suburbs. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Clyne, D. 1984 More Wildlife in the Suburbs. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Conder, P. 1994 With Wings on their Fingers. An intimate view of the Flying-fox. Angus and Robertson (HarperCollins), Pymble.
Eby, P. 1991a. “Finger-winged night workers”: managing forests to conserve the role of Grey-headed flying foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers. Pp. 91-100 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Eby, P. 1991b. Seasonal movements of grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research 18: 547-59.
Eby, P. 1995. The biology and management of flying foxes in NSW. Species management report number 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P. 2002. Using New South Wales planning instruments to improve conservation and management of Grey-headed Flying-fox camps. Pp 240-250 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in New South Wales edited by Peggy Edy and Daniel Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. and Palmer, C. 1991. Flying foxes in rainforest remnants in northern New South Wales. Pp. 48-56 in Rainforest Remnants edited by S. Phillips. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-53.
Fleming, P. J. S. 1987. Flying-fox (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on the north coast of New South Wales: damage to stonefruit crops and control methods. Australian Mammalogy 10: 143-5.
Hall, L. S. 1990. Bat conservation in Australia. Australian Zoologist 26: 1-4.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1987. Proceedings of the First National Flying-fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 71-157.
Hall, L. and Richards, G. 2000 Flying Foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. UNSW Press, Kensington.
Lunney, D. 1990. Nature conservation debate: Bats; national parks; and state of the nation. Australian Zoologist 26: 101-7.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the rainforest remnants of north-east NSW. Pp. 247-77 in: Australia's Ever-Changing Forests III edited by J. Dargavel. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G. and Dickman, C. R. 1996. An ecological approach to identifying the endangered fauna of New South Wales. Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 212-31.
Lunney, D., Curtin, A. L., Ayers, D., Cogger, H. G., Dickman, C. R., Maitz, W., Law, B. and Fisher, D. 2000. The threatened and non-threatened native vertebrate fauna of New South Wales: status and ecological attributes. Environmental and Heritage Monograph Series No. 4. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Millhouse, G. 1987 The Settlers of West Pennant Hills Valley 1799 Onwards. Hills District Historical Society, Castle Hill.
Morecroft, R. 1991 Raising Archie. Simon and Schuster, Roseville NSW.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Pallin, N. 1990. Contributions to bat conservation by Ku-ring-gai Bat Colony Committee Inc. Australian Zoologist 26: 42-3.
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 10-20.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. L. 1992. Movements of grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-40.
Reed, P., Lunney, D., and Walker, P. 1990. Survey of the koala Phascolarctos cinereus (Goldfuss) in New South Wales (1986-87), with an ecological interpretation of its distribution. Pp. 55-74 in Biology of the koala edited by A. K. Lee, K. A. Handasyde and G. D. Sanson. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney.
Slack, J. M. (ed) 1990 Flying Fox Workshop Proceedings. Wollongbar Agricultural Institute 22 August 1990. NSW Agriculture and Fisheries, Lismore.
Stratford, E., Mazur, N., Lunney, D. and Bennett, D. 2000. Managing the koala problem: interdisciplinary perspectives. Conservation Biology 14: 610-18.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp. 31-35 in The Action Plan for Australian Bats edited by A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Wahl, D. E. 1994 The Management of Flying-foxes. M. App. Sc. Thesis. University of Canberra, Canberra.
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