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The management of flying-fox camps is pivotal to the overall conservation and management of flying-foxes. This paper employs an historical approach to assess the effectiveness of camp removal in the Brisbane area as a tool in the management of flying-foxes. Much of what has been learnt in the last 25 years has been thrust upon us by hasty and unplanned attempts to remove flying-fox camps. There have been many attempts, many failures and only a few claims of success in moving flying-fox camps. None of the claimed successes has ever been monitored in such a way that their effectiveness can be adequately assessed with any confidence. Long term observations suggest that, in moving a flying-fox camp, the problem is merely transferred to other areas, and the whole process starts all over again with a new lot of players. There is still more that we need to know to successfully address camp management. The microclimate of camps needs more research, as does the seeding of new areas with ground litter containing flying-fox droppings, and the location of orphan release cages set up in prospective new camp sites. Nevertheless, it is apparent that in the future it will make more sense to manage flying-fox camps where they are and use strategies to lessen the impact on people who object to their presence.

Birt, P., and Markus N. 1998. Notes on the temporary displacement of Pteropus alecto and P. poliocephalus by P. scapulatus within a daytime campsite. Australian Mammalogy. 21: 107-110.
Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. 1998. Urban flying-foxes. Nature Australia. 26: 54-59.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed flying-foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research. 18: 547-559.
Hall, L. S. 1987. Introductory notes on the first national flying-fox symposium. Australian Mammalogy. 10:73.
Hall, L. and Richards, G. 1991. Flying-fox camps. Wildlife Australia. 28: 19-22.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. C. 2000 Flying-foxes, fruit and blossom bats of Australia. University of NSW Press, Sydney.135pp.
Low, T. 1996. Woodend Nature Reserve - Draft Management Plan. Ipswich City Council.
Lucas, T. P. 1895. The flying-fox: its habits and depredations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 12: 49-53.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the remnant rainforests of north-east New South Wales. Pp 247-77 in Australia's ever changing forests, No. 3, Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Australian Forest History, edited by J. Dargavel, CRES, Canberra.
Nelson, J. E. 1965. Movements of Australian flying-foxes (Pteropodidiae: Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology. 13: 53-73.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Council Sci. Indust. Res. Bulletin. 53: 1-81.
Richards, G. 2002. The development of strategies for management of theflying-fox colony at the Royag Botanic Gadens, Sydney. Pp. 196-201
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research. 18: 463-468.
Tidemann, C. R. and Vardon, M. J. 1997. Pests, pestilence, pollen and pot-roasts: the need for community-based management of flying-foxes in Australia. Australian Biologist. 10: 77-83.
Tidemann, C. R., Vardon, M. J., Loughland, R. A. and Brocklehurst, P. J. 1999 Dry season camps of Flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.) in Kakadu World Heritage Area, Northern Australia. Journal of Zoology. 247: 155-163.
Vardon, M. J., Simpson, B. K., Sherwell, D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1997. Flying-foxes and tourists: a conservation dilemma in northern Australia. Australian Zoologist. 30: 310-315.
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References

Birt, P., and Markus N. 1998. Notes on the temporary displacement of Pteropus alecto and P. poliocephalus by P. scapulatus within a daytime campsite. Australian Mammalogy. 21: 107-110.
Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. 1998. Urban flying-foxes. Nature Australia. 26: 54-59.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed flying-foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Wildlife Research. 18: 547-559.
Hall, L. S. 1987. Introductory notes on the first national flying-fox symposium. Australian Mammalogy. 10:73.
Hall, L. and Richards, G. 1991. Flying-fox camps. Wildlife Australia. 28: 19-22.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. C. 2000 Flying-foxes, fruit and blossom bats of Australia. University of NSW Press, Sydney.135pp.
Low, T. 1996. Woodend Nature Reserve - Draft Management Plan. Ipswich City Council.
Lucas, T. P. 1895. The flying-fox: its habits and depredations. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland. 12: 49-53.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the remnant rainforests of north-east New South Wales. Pp 247-77 in Australia's ever changing forests, No. 3, Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Australian Forest History, edited by J. Dargavel, CRES, Canberra.
Nelson, J. E. 1965. Movements of Australian flying-foxes (Pteropodidiae: Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology. 13: 53-73.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Council Sci. Indust. Res. Bulletin. 53: 1-81.
Richards, G. 2002. The development of strategies for management of theflying-fox colony at the Royag Botanic Gadens, Sydney. Pp. 196-201
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research. 18: 463-468.
Tidemann, C. R. and Vardon, M. J. 1997. Pests, pestilence, pollen and pot-roasts: the need for community-based management of flying-foxes in Australia. Australian Biologist. 10: 77-83.
Tidemann, C. R., Vardon, M. J., Loughland, R. A. and Brocklehurst, P. J. 1999 Dry season camps of Flying-foxes (Pteropus spp.) in Kakadu World Heritage Area, Northern Australia. Journal of Zoology. 247: 155-163.
Vardon, M. J., Simpson, B. K., Sherwell, D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1997. Flying-foxes and tourists: a conservation dilemma in northern Australia. Australian Zoologist. 30: 310-315.
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