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The listing of Grey-headed Flying-foxes Pteropus poliocephalus as Vulnerable on the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (TSC Act) initiated a shift in management focus from control to conservation. The process has highlighted the need to preserve roosting habitat for the species and develop strategies to limit conflict with neighbours. This paper documents the conservation status of Grey-headed Flying-fox camps located east of the escarpment in NSW and explores the potential to use existing planning instruments to 1) protect roost vegetation from clearing and 2) limit conflict with humans by restricting development around camp perimeters (buffers). In coastal NSW, only 27% of camps and 16% of buffers are in conservation reserves. A high percentage of sites are on privately owned land where land use is regulated through the zoning and land use controls prescribed by local government. Protection of vegetation within a camp should greatly improve under the requirements of the TSC Act. However, there are no provisions in the Act to restrict development around camps. The effective use of buffers to limit conflict with humans could be achieved using the Environmental Planning Instruments under the NSW Environmental Protection and Assessment Act 1979 (EP&A Act). For example, the perimeters of camps could be zoned for environmental protection in Local Environment Plans with land use controls that restrict development. This planning-based strategy requires a substantial investment in time and effort to implement. However, it has the potential to secure conservation and management outcomes that will benefit Grey-headed Flying-foxes and local communities into the future.

Conway, A. 2002. The Planning System in NSW and Threatened Species. Pp. 259-267 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Widlife Research 18: 547-59.
Eby, P. 1995 The Biology and Management of flying foxes in NSW. Species management report number 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P. and Palmer, C. 1991. Flying foxes in rainforest remnants in northern New South Wales. Pp. 48-56. in Rainforest Remnants, edited by S. Phillips. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Field, H. 2002. The role of grey-headed flying foxes in the ecology of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Pp 139-141 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. S. 2002. Management of flying fox camps: what have we learnt in the last twenty five years? Pp 215-244 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Larsen, E., Hartnell, E., Beck, M., and Creenaune, M. 2002. Neighbours of Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: Community Attitudes Survey 2001. Pp 225-239 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the rainforest remnants of north-east NSW. Pp. 247-77 in Australia's Ever-Changing Forests III, edited by J. Dargavel. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox and the implications for culling. Pp 91-108 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Nelson, J. E. 1965. Movements of Australian Flying Foxes (Pteropodidae: Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 13: 53-73.
NSW Department of Planning. 1995 North coast urban planning strategy into the 21st century. NSW Department of Planning, Sydney.
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox reserve: habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 10-20.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1992. Movements of Grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-40.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying fox in Australia. Bulletin of CSIR 53: 1-80.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of roost sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocepholus on the north coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research 18: 463-8.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. The biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1: 151-164.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Managing flying-foxes: what else do we need to know? Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Vardon, M. J., Simpson, B. K., Sherwell, D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1997. Flying-foxes and tourists: a conservation dilemma in the Northern Territory. Australian Zoologist 30: 310-15.
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying-fox camps: a publicly-documented conflict from Maclean on the north coast of NSW. Pp 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Zar, J. H. 1984 Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
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References

Conway, A. 2002. The Planning System in NSW and Threatened Species. Pp. 259-267 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. 1991. Seasonal movements of Grey-headed flying-foxes, Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae), from two maternity camps in northern New South Wales. Widlife Research 18: 547-59.
Eby, P. 1995 The Biology and Management of flying foxes in NSW. Species management report number 18. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Eby, P. and Palmer, C. 1991. Flying foxes in rainforest remnants in northern New South Wales. Pp. 48-56. in Rainforest Remnants, edited by S. Phillips. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Eby, P., Richards, G., Collins, L. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales, during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Field, H. 2002. The role of grey-headed flying foxes in the ecology of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Pp 139-141 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. S. 2002. Management of flying fox camps: what have we learnt in the last twenty five years? Pp 215-244 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Larsen, E., Hartnell, E., Beck, M., and Creenaune, M. 2002. Neighbours of Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: Community Attitudes Survey 2001. Pp 225-239 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Moon, C. 1997. Flying-foxes and their camps in the rainforest remnants of north-east NSW. Pp. 247-77 in Australia's Ever-Changing Forests III, edited by J. Dargavel. Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox and the implications for culling. Pp 91-108 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Nelson, J. E. 1965. Movements of Australian Flying Foxes (Pteropodidae: Megachiroptera). Australian Journal of Zoology 13: 53-73.
NSW Department of Planning. 1995 North coast urban planning strategy into the 21st century. NSW Department of Planning, Sydney.
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox reserve: habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 10-20.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee, M. 1992. Movements of Grey-headed flying foxes ( Pteropus poliocephalus) to and from a colony site on the central coast of New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19: 331-40.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying fox in Australia. Bulletin of CSIR 53: 1-80.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of roost sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocepholus on the north coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Spencer, H. J., Palmer, C. and Parry-Jones, K. 1991. Movements of fruit bats in eastern Australia, determined by using radio-tracking. Wildlife Research 18: 463-8.
Tidemann, C. R. 1999. The biology and management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus.Acta Chiropterologica 1: 151-164.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Managing flying-foxes: what else do we need to know? Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Vardon, M. J., Simpson, B. K., Sherwell, D. and Tidemann, C. R. 1997. Flying-foxes and tourists: a conservation dilemma in the Northern Territory. Australian Zoologist 30: 310-15.
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying-fox camps: a publicly-documented conflict from Maclean on the north coast of NSW. Pp 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Zar, J. H. 1984 Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
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