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The effective management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus as a threatened species in NSW will depend on our ability to develop and implement policies that focus on habitat conservation and enhancement. The aim is to preserve a continuous food supply for the species and an integrated network of camps as stopover habitat during migration as well as suitable roosting environments. Several ecological attributes of the Grey-headed Flying-fox make this a demanding task, in particular, its wide-ranging and nomadic habits. The long distances over which flying-foxes travel mean that there needs to be an integrated response between states, as well as a shift in thinking that encourages setting aside habitats on a broad landscape scale, irrespective of current land tenure. These conservation initiatives will have to address many hard issues being faced throughout Australia, including the need to make conservation equitable by providing incentives to encourage private landholders to retain habitat and participate more fully in conservation initiatives. In order to involve the whole community in conserving habitat for Grey-headed Flying-foxes, the community also needs to be made aware of the value of the species, including its crucial role in dispersing seeds and pollen for forest regeneration. Community education and participation will be essential to the recovery process for the species. Further, the information currently available to management is inadequate for the task, and ongoing, adaptive management will need to be underpinned by sustained research on a variety of fronts to achieve the successful transition of the Grey-headed Flying-fox from pest to threatened species and ultimately to recovery. It will take a shift in perception to adjust to adopting a long-term vision in the management of this magnificent Australian bat.

Accad, A., Neldner, V. J., Wilson, B. A., and Niehus, R. E. 2001 Remnant vegetation in Queensland: Analysis of Pre-clearing, Remnant 1997-1999 Regional Ecosystem Information. Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1996 Census of Population and Housing: Population Growth and Distribution, Australia, 1996. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.
Australia State of the Environment Committee. 2001 Australia State of the Environment 2001. Independent Report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment and Heritage. Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Barson, M. M., Randall, L. A. and Bordas, V. 2000. Land cover change in Australia: results of the collaborative Bureau of Rural Sciences - State agencies project on remote sensing of land cover change. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Benson, J. 1991. The effect of 200 years of European settlement on the vegetation and flora of New South Wales. Cunninghamia 2: 343-370.
Biel, E. 2002. The cost to orchardists in the management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Who pays? A community benefit approach. Pp. 47-52 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. S. 1998. Urban flying-foxes. Nature Australia 26: 54-59.
Brower, L. P. and Malcolm, S. B. 1991. Animal migrations: endangered phenomena. Amer Zool. 31: 265-276.
Catterall, C., Storey, R. and Kingston, M. B. 1997. Reality versus rhetoric: a case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pp 367-377 in Conservation outside nature reserves. edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Christesen, L. S. and Nelson, J. 2001. Vocal communication in the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Aust. Zool. 31: 447-457.
Clemson, A. 1985 Honey and Pollen Flora Department of Agriculture New South Wales, Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Collins, L. 1999. Wildlife caring and conservation: The impact of drought on the flying-foxes of the NSW north coast. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter. 12: 31-32.
Comensoli, P. 2002. The impact upon fruit growers of a decision to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 53-55 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Dickman, C. and Fleming, M. 2002. Pest, or Passenger Pigeon? The New South Wales Scientific Committee's assessment of the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp. 20-28 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. 1990. Seed dispersal and seasonal movements by Grey-headed Flying Foxes and the implications for management. Pp. 28-33 in Flying Fox Workshop Proceedings edited by J. Slack. Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, Wollongbar.
Eby, P. 1991. ‘Finger-winged night workers’: managing forests to conserve the role of grey-headed flying-foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers. Pp 91-100 in Conserving Australia's Forest Fauna edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney.
Eby, P. 1995 Biology and Management of Pteropus in New South Wales. Species Report. Hurstville, NSW: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Eby, P. 1999. Low reproductive output in Grey-headed Flying-foxes associated with a short period of food scarcity. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 14: 17-20.
Eby, P., Collins, L., Richards, G. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, Pteropus poliocephalus during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. 2002. Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus as a threatened species: a context for the debate. Pp. 1-15 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Field, H. 2002. The role of Grey-headed Flying-foxes in the ecology of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Pp. 139-141 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Ford, D. 2002. An historical perspective of changing community attitudes towards flying-foxes in Sydney. Pp. 146-159 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Gilligan, B. 2002. Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a threatened species in NSW: finding a balanced solution. Pp 16-19 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1987. Proceedings of the First National Flying fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 73-157.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. 2000 Flying Foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. UNSW Press: Sydney.
Hamilton, C., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. An economic evaluation of local government approaches to koala conservation. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 7: 158-69.
House, S. 1997. Reproductive biology of eucalypts. Pp. 30-54 In Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems Ed by J. E. Williams and J. C. Z. Woinarski. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Hughes, J. 2002. Survival, inquiry and sophistication in managing Grey-headed Flying-foxes. Pp.142-145 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Keith, D. and Bedward, M. 1999. Native vegetation of the South East Forests region, Eden, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 6: 1-218.
Kingston, M. B., Turnbill, M. B., Hall, J. W., Boulton, S. C. and Storey, R. J. 1999 Tweed Vegetation Management Plan. Tweed Shire Council, Murwillumbah, NSW.
Larsen, E., Beck, M. and Hartnell, E. 2002. Neighbours of Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: Community Attitudes Survey 2001. Pp. 225-239 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Law, B. S. 1994. Banksia nectar and pollen: dietary items affecting the abundance of the common blossom bat, Syconycteris australis, in south-eastern Australia. Aust. J. Ecol. 19: 425-434.
Law, B. S., Eby, P. and Sommerville, D. 2002. Tree-planting to conserve flying-foxes and reduce orchard damage. Pp. 84-90 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Law, B. S., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L., and Tweedie, T. 2000. The flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-78.
Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and Turbill, J. 1999 Coffs Harbour City Koala Plan of Management. Parts A&B. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D., Pressey, B., Archer, M., Hand, S., Godthelp, H. and Curtin, A. 1997. Integrating ecology and economics: illustrating the need to resolve the conflicts of space and time. Ecological Economics 23: 135-42.
Lunney, D., Reid, A. and Matthews, A. 2002. Community perceptions of flying-foxes in New South Wales. Pp. 160-175 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
McKinnon, A., Thompson, J. and Gordon, G. 2002. Flying-fox management in Queensland: is it any different? Pp. 128-138 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
McWilliam, A. N. 1986. The feeding ecology of Pteropus in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Myotis 23-24: 201-208.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. P. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus, and the implications of culling. Pp. 91-108 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Norton, T. 1996. Conserving biological diversity in Australia's temperate eucalypt forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 85: 21-33.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
O'Brien, G. M. and Fisher, M. G. 2002. Recommendations for the recovery of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales. Pp. 268-271 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 10-20.
Parry-Jones, K. A. 2000. Historical declines since the early 1900s, and current mortality factos and abundance of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp. 57-66 in Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox in New South Wales edited by G. Richards, Australasian Bat Society.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee. M. L. 2001. Factors affecting the occupation of a colony site in Sydney, New South Wales by the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (Pteropodidae). Austral Ecology 26: 47-55.
Pook, E. W., Gill, A. M. and Moore, P. H. R. 1997. Long term variation of litter fall, canopy leaf area and flowering in Eucalyptus maculata forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Aust J. Botany 45: 737-755.
Pressey, R. L. 1994. Land classifications are necessary for conservation planning but what do they tell us about fauna? Pp.31-41 in Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reid and D. Butcher. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Pressey, R. L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T. C., Woods, C. A., Tully, S. L. and Weinman, K. M. 1996. How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales? - analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure, and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 311-333.
Prober 1996. Conservation of the grassy White Box woodlands: rangewide floristic variation and implications for reserve design. Aust. J. Botany 44: 57-77.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Bulletin of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 53: 1-80.
Richards, G. C. and Hall, L. S. 2002. A new flying-fox of the genus Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from Torres Strait, Australia. Aust Zool. 32: 69-75.
Rogers, J. 2002. The Economic and Social Implications of Flying-fox Predation on the North Coast of NSW. Pp. 58-62 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Sattler, P. and Williams, R. (eds) 1999 The Conservation Status of Queensland's Bioregional Ecosystems, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of Roost Sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Peteropus poliocephalus on the North Coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective. Pp. 202-214 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Somerville, D. 1999 Floral Resource Database for the NSW Apiary Industry. Final Report to NSW Agriculture, Goulburn.
Teagle, S. 2002. Flying fox Consultative Committee - Formation, Outcomes and Future Strategies. Pp. 109-116 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Sustainable Management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. In A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery (eds), The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Pp 31-35. Environment Australia, Canberra.
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying fox camps. Pp. 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Wilson, B. A., Neldner, V. J. and Accad, A. in press. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. Aust. Rangelands.
Wilson, J. and Bennett, A. F. 1999. Patchiness of a floral resource: flowering of red ironbark Eucalyptus tricarpa in a Box and Ironbark forest. Victorian Naturalist 116: 48-53.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., Whitehead, P. J., Bowman, D. M. J. and Russell-Smith, J. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: the problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory, Australia. Global Ecol. Biogeog. Lett. 2: 1-10.
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References

Accad, A., Neldner, V. J., Wilson, B. A., and Niehus, R. E. 2001 Remnant vegetation in Queensland: Analysis of Pre-clearing, Remnant 1997-1999 Regional Ecosystem Information. Queensland Herbarium, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1996 Census of Population and Housing: Population Growth and Distribution, Australia, 1996. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.
Australia State of the Environment Committee. 2001 Australia State of the Environment 2001. Independent Report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment and Heritage. Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Barson, M. M., Randall, L. A. and Bordas, V. 2000. Land cover change in Australia: results of the collaborative Bureau of Rural Sciences - State agencies project on remote sensing of land cover change. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Benson, J. 1991. The effect of 200 years of European settlement on the vegetation and flora of New South Wales. Cunninghamia 2: 343-370.
Biel, E. 2002. The cost to orchardists in the management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Who pays? A community benefit approach. Pp. 47-52 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Birt, P., Markus, N., Collins, L. and Hall, L. S. 1998. Urban flying-foxes. Nature Australia 26: 54-59.
Brower, L. P. and Malcolm, S. B. 1991. Animal migrations: endangered phenomena. Amer Zool. 31: 265-276.
Catterall, C., Storey, R. and Kingston, M. B. 1997. Reality versus rhetoric: a case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pp 367-377 in Conservation outside nature reserves. edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Christesen, L. S. and Nelson, J. 2001. Vocal communication in the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Aust. Zool. 31: 447-457.
Clemson, A. 1985 Honey and Pollen Flora Department of Agriculture New South Wales, Inkata Press, Melbourne.
Collins, L. 1999. Wildlife caring and conservation: The impact of drought on the flying-foxes of the NSW north coast. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter. 12: 31-32.
Comensoli, P. 2002. The impact upon fruit growers of a decision to list the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Vulnerable species under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act. Pp. 53-55 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Dickman, C. and Fleming, M. 2002. Pest, or Passenger Pigeon? The New South Wales Scientific Committee's assessment of the status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp. 20-28 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Eby, P. 1990. Seed dispersal and seasonal movements by Grey-headed Flying Foxes and the implications for management. Pp. 28-33 in Flying Fox Workshop Proceedings edited by J. Slack. Wollongbar Agricultural Institute, Wollongbar.
Eby, P. 1991. ‘Finger-winged night workers’: managing forests to conserve the role of grey-headed flying-foxes as pollinators and seed dispersers. Pp 91-100 in Conserving Australia's Forest Fauna edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Sydney.
Eby, P. 1995 Biology and Management of Pteropus in New South Wales. Species Report. Hurstville, NSW: NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.
Eby, P. 1999. Low reproductive output in Grey-headed Flying-foxes associated with a short period of food scarcity. Australasian Bat Society Newsletter 14: 17-20.
Eby, P., Collins, L., Richards, G. and Parry-Jones, K. 1999. The distribution, abundance and vulnerability to population reduction of a nomadic nectarivore, Pteropus poliocephalus during a period of resource concentration. Australian Zoologist 31: 240-253.
Eby, P. and Lunney, D. 2002. Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus as a threatened species: a context for the debate. Pp. 1-15 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Field, H. 2002. The role of Grey-headed Flying-foxes in the ecology of Hendra virus, Menangle virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. Pp. 139-141 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Ford, D. 2002. An historical perspective of changing community attitudes towards flying-foxes in Sydney. Pp. 146-159 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Gilligan, B. 2002. Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a threatened species in NSW: finding a balanced solution. Pp 16-19 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Hall, L. and Hughes, L. (eds) 1987. Proceedings of the First National Flying fox Symposium. Australian Mammalogy 10: 73-157.
Hall, L. S. and Richards, G. 2000 Flying Foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. UNSW Press: Sydney.
Hamilton, C., Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 2000. An economic evaluation of local government approaches to koala conservation. Australian Journal of Environmental Management 7: 158-69.
House, S. 1997. Reproductive biology of eucalypts. Pp. 30-54 In Eucalypt ecology: individuals to ecosystems Ed by J. E. Williams and J. C. Z. Woinarski. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Hughes, J. 2002. Survival, inquiry and sophistication in managing Grey-headed Flying-foxes. Pp.142-145 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Keith, D. and Bedward, M. 1999. Native vegetation of the South East Forests region, Eden, New South Wales. Cunninghamia 6: 1-218.
Kingston, M. B., Turnbill, M. B., Hall, J. W., Boulton, S. C. and Storey, R. J. 1999 Tweed Vegetation Management Plan. Tweed Shire Council, Murwillumbah, NSW.
Larsen, E., Beck, M. and Hartnell, E. 2002. Neighbours of Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: Community Attitudes Survey 2001. Pp. 225-239 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Law, B. S. 1994. Banksia nectar and pollen: dietary items affecting the abundance of the common blossom bat, Syconycteris australis, in south-eastern Australia. Aust. J. Ecol. 19: 425-434.
Law, B. S., Eby, P. and Sommerville, D. 2002. Tree-planting to conserve flying-foxes and reduce orchard damage. Pp. 84-90 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Law, B. S., Mackowski, C., Schoer, L., and Tweedie, T. 2000. The flowering phenology of myrtaceous trees and their relation to environmental and disturbance variables in northern New South Wales. Austral Ecology 25: 160-78.
Lunney, D., Moon, C., Matthews, A. and Turbill, J. 1999 Coffs Harbour City Koala Plan of Management. Parts A&B. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Lunney, D., Pressey, B., Archer, M., Hand, S., Godthelp, H. and Curtin, A. 1997. Integrating ecology and economics: illustrating the need to resolve the conflicts of space and time. Ecological Economics 23: 135-42.
Lunney, D., Reid, A. and Matthews, A. 2002. Community perceptions of flying-foxes in New South Wales. Pp. 160-175 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
McKinnon, A., Thompson, J. and Gordon, G. 2002. Flying-fox management in Queensland: is it any different? Pp. 128-138 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
McWilliam, A. N. 1986. The feeding ecology of Pteropus in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Myotis 23-24: 201-208.
Martin, L. and McIlwee, A. P. 2002. The reproductive biology and intrinsic capacity for increase of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus, and the implications of culling. Pp. 91-108 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Norton, T. 1996. Conserving biological diversity in Australia's temperate eucalypt forests. Forest Ecology and Management. 85: 21-33.
NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service. 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
O'Brien, G. M. and Fisher, M. G. 2002. Recommendations for the recovery of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus in New South Wales. Pp. 268-271 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Pallin, N. 2000. Ku-ring-gai Flying-fox Reserve: habitat restoration project, 15 years on. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 10-20.
Parry-Jones, K. A. 2000. Historical declines since the early 1900s, and current mortality factos and abundance of the Grey-headed Flying-fox. Pp. 57-66 in Proceedings of a Workshop to Assess the Status of the Grey-headed Flying-fox in New South Wales edited by G. Richards, Australasian Bat Society.
Parry-Jones, K. A. and Augee. M. L. 2001. Factors affecting the occupation of a colony site in Sydney, New South Wales by the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus (Pteropodidae). Austral Ecology 26: 47-55.
Pook, E. W., Gill, A. M. and Moore, P. H. R. 1997. Long term variation of litter fall, canopy leaf area and flowering in Eucalyptus maculata forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Aust J. Botany 45: 737-755.
Pressey, R. L. 1994. Land classifications are necessary for conservation planning but what do they tell us about fauna? Pp.31-41 in Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reid and D. Butcher. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, NSW.
Pressey, R. L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T. C., Woods, C. A., Tully, S. L. and Weinman, K. M. 1996. How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales? - analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure, and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 311-333.
Prober 1996. Conservation of the grassy White Box woodlands: rangewide floristic variation and implications for reserve design. Aust. J. Botany 44: 57-77.
Ratcliffe, F. N. 1931. The flying-fox ( Pteropus) in Australia. Bulletin of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 53: 1-80.
Richards, G. C. and Hall, L. S. 2002. A new flying-fox of the genus Pteropus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) from Torres Strait, Australia. Aust Zool. 32: 69-75.
Rogers, J. 2002. The Economic and Social Implications of Flying-fox Predation on the North Coast of NSW. Pp. 58-62 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Sattler, P. and Williams, R. (eds) 1999 The Conservation Status of Queensland's Bioregional Ecosystems, Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane.
Smith, M. 2002. Management of Roost Sites of the Grey-headed Flying-fox Peteropus poliocephalus on the North Coast of NSW: a National Parks & Wildlife Service perspective. Pp. 202-214 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Somerville, D. 1999 Floral Resource Database for the NSW Apiary Industry. Final Report to NSW Agriculture, Goulburn.
Teagle, S. 2002. Flying fox Consultative Committee - Formation, Outcomes and Future Strategies. Pp. 109-116 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C. R. 2002. Sustainable Management of the Grey-headed Flying-fox, Pteropus poliocephalus. Pp. 122-127 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Tidemann, C., Eby, P., Parry-Jones, K. and Vardon, M. 1999. Grey-headed Flying-fox. In A. Duncan, G. B. Baker and N. Montgomery (eds), The Action Plan for Australian Bats. Pp 31-35. Environment Australia, Canberra.
West, C. 2002. Contemporary issues in managing flying fox camps. Pp. 176-195 in Managing the Grey-headed Flying-fox as a Threatened Species in NSW, edited by P. Eby and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Wilson, B. A., Neldner, V. J. and Accad, A. in press. The extent and status of remnant vegetation in Queensland and its implications for statewide vegetation management and legislation. Aust. Rangelands.
Wilson, J. and Bennett, A. F. 1999. Patchiness of a floral resource: flowering of red ironbark Eucalyptus tricarpa in a Box and Ironbark forest. Victorian Naturalist 116: 48-53.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., Whitehead, P. J., Bowman, D. M. J. and Russell-Smith, J. 1992. Conservation of mobile species in a variable environment: the problem of reserve design in the Northern Territory, Australia. Global Ecol. Biogeog. Lett. 2: 1-10.
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