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By signing the Rio Convention on environment and sustainable development, Australia has made a long-term commitment to the conservation of our unique flora and fauna. This includes the diverse, but often ignored small animals and plants living on and adjacent to our coasts. Many of these animals and plants have “broadcast” fertilization, dispersive larvae and very variable survival in the plankton. Patchy patterns of arrival of new animals into coastal habitats, along with varied interactions among species and between organisms and their surrounding environment, lead to characteristic patterns of coastal biodiversity. This biodiversity is patchy from place to place and variable from time to time in interactive and unpredictable ways. Conserving this biodiversity depends on throwing away old-fashioned, irrelevant ideas (such as the balance of nature) and recognising ecological realism. Community “monitoring” is becoming an important component of conservation in many parts of Australia. There has, however, been little serious thought about what data are collected in “monitoring” programmes, what they might mean or what they might be used for. Ecological data collected without clear hypotheses are generally pointless, or cannot be used for the purpose intended. Data required to measure biodiversity, or changes to biodiversity in such complex, variable systems as coastal habitats, cannot be collected and interpreted without considerable knowledge and expertise of sampling design, ecological theory and modern analytical methodologies. This means that they cannot usually be collected by amateurs or scientists not trained in and practising this type of ecology. It is sometimes suggested that ecological “indicators” be monitored as a means of simplifying the types of data collected, but it is seldom clear what it is that most indicators are supposed to indicate. Conservation of coastal habitats is not likely to progress by handing over measurement of their well-being or potential degradation to those ill-equipped to make such measurements. There are well-documented examples of the collection of useless data by non-trained observers, when the data being collected were much simpler than those needed to inform about coastal habitats. What is needed is a proper partnership between the community, who have a primary voice in what level of conservation is needed and what should form the priorities and the scientists, whose expertise and skills are needed to ensure that conservation is, indeed, occurring. These different roles are not interchangeable. Confusion between them will be to the continued detriment of our unique coastal habitats.

Anderson, D. T., 1960. The life-histories of marine prosobranch gastropods. J. Malac. Soc. Aust. 4: 16-29.
Andrewartha, H. G. and Birch, L. C., 1954 The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Bart, J. and Schoultz, J. D., 1984. Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density. Auk 101: 307-18.
Bell, J. D. and Westoby, M., 1987. Effects of an epiphytic alga on abundances of fish and decapods associated with the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Aust. J. Ecol. 12: 333-7.
Botkin, D. B., 1990 Discordant Harmonies. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Chapman, M. G., 1986. Assessment of some controls in experimental transplants of intertidal gastropods. J. Exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 103: 181-201.
Chapman, M. G., 1997. Scientific and community roles in intertidal conservation. Pp. 249-54 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J., 1994. Dispersal of the intertidal snail, Nodilittorina pyramidalis, in response to topographic complexity of the substratum. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 179: 145-69.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J., 1997a. Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. Pp. 103-14 in Frontiers in Ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier Science: Oxford.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J., 1997b Testing the Effectiveness of Intertidal Protected Areas in New South Wales. Final Report, Project D504 for Environment Australia. Institute of Marine Ecology, University of Sydney: Sydney.
Clarke, K. R., 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust. J. Ecol. 18: 117-43.
Clarke, K. R. and Ainsworth, M., 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 92: 205-19.
Clarke, K. R. and Green, R. H., 1988. Statistical design and analysis for a ‘biological effects’ study. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 46: 213-26.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick, R. M., 1998. Quantifying structural redundancy in ecological communities. Oecologia (Berl.) 113: 278-89.
Connell, J. H., 1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus.Ecology 42: 710-23.
Connor, E. F. and Simberloff, D., 1979. You can't falsify ecological hypotheses without data. Bull. Ecol. Soc. America 60: 154-5.
Connor, E. F. and Simberloff, D., 1986. Competition, scientific method and null models in ecology. Am. Sci. 75: 155-62.
Dawkins, H. C., 1981. The misuse of t-tests, LSD and multiple-range tests. Bull. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 12: 112-5.
Dayton, P. K., 1971. Competition, disturbance and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol. Monogr. 41: 351-89.
Elliott, J. M., 1977 Methods for the Analyses of Samples of Benthic Invertebrates. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication No. 25: Reading.
Faanes, C. A. and Bystrak, D., 1981. The role of observer bias in the North American breeding bird survey. Stud. Avian Biol. 6: 353-9.
Fairweather, P. G., 1988. Predation creates haloes of bare space among prey on rocky shores in New South Wales. Aust. J. Ecol. 13: 401-9.
Fairweather, P. G., 1993. Links between ecology and ecophilosophy, ethics and the requirements of environmental management. Aust. J. Ecol. 18: 3-19.
GESAMP, 1980 Monitoring Biological Variables Related to Marine Pollution. Reports and Studies, No. 12, UNESCO: Paris. 1-22 pp.
Gray, J. S., 1990. Statistics and the precautionary principle. Mar. Poll. Bull. 21: 174-6.
Green, R. H., 1979 Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists. Wiley: Chichester.
Green, R. H. and Hobson, K. D., 1970. Spatial and temporal structure in a temperate intertidal community, with special emphasis on Gemma gemma (Pelecypoda: Mollusca). Ecology 51: 999-1011.
Hawkins, S. J. and Hartnoll, R. G., 1980. A study of the small-scale relationship between species number and area on a rocky shore. Est. Coast. Mar. Sci. 10: 201-14.
Hurlbert, S. J., 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 54: 187-211.
Jernakoff, P., 1985a. Interactions between the limpet Patelloida latistrigata and algae on an intertidal rock platform. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 23: 71-8.
Jernakoff, P., 1985b. An experimental evaluation of the influence of barnacles, crevices and seasonal patterns of grazing on the algal diversity and cover in an intertidal barnacle zone. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 88: 287-302.
Keith, K. J. and Foster, D. J., 1996. Community monitoring for catchment management. Pp. 391-4 in Downstream Effects of Land Use ed by H. M. Hunter, A. G. Eyles and G. E. Rayment. Department of Natural Resources: Queensland.
Kelly, A., 1995. A mudmap for landcare: the technique of participatory research. Pp. 93-106 in Participative Approaches For Landcare: Perspectives, Policies, Programs ed by S. Chamala and K. Keith. Australian Academic Press: Brisbane.
Kennelly, S. J., 1989. Effects of kelp canopies on understorey species due to shade and scour. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 50: 215-24.
Keough, M. J. and Quinn, G. P., 1991. Causality and the choice of measurements for detecting human impacts in marine environments. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 42: 539-54.
Legendre, P. and Anderson, M. J., 1999. Distance-based redundancy analysis: testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 69: 1-24.
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. and Walters, C., 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17.
Mapstone, B. D., Underwood, A. J. and Creese, R. G., 1984. Experimental analysis of the commensal relation between intertidal gastropods Patelloida mufria and the trochid Austrocochlea constricta.Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 17: 85-100.
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1988. Biological Effects of Pollutants. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 46.
McGuinness, K. A., 1984a. Equations and explanations in the study of species-area curves. Biol. Rev. 59: 423-40.
McGuinness, K. A., 1984b. Species-area relations of communities on intertidal boulders: testing the null hypothesis. J. Biogeog. 11: 439-56.
McIntosh, R. P., 1985 The Background of Ecology. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Merton, R. K., 1977 The Sociology of Science: an Episodic Memoir. Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale, Illinois.
Mileikovsky, S. A., 1971. Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a reevaluation. Mar. Biol. 10: 193-213.
Morrisey, D. J., Underwood, A. J., Stark, J. S. and Howitt, L., 1994. Temporal variation in concentrations of heavy metals in marine sediments. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci. 38: 271-82.
Paine, R. T., 1974. Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia (Berl.) 15: 93-120.
Peters, R. H., 1991 A Critique for Ecology. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Pielou, E. C., 1984 The Interpretation of Ecological Data: a Primer on Classification and Ordination. Wiley: New York.
Popper, K. R., 1968 The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson: London.
Sauer, J. R., Peterjohn, B. G. and Link, W. A., 1994. Observer differences in the North American breeding bird survey. Auk 111: 50-62.
Scheltema, R. S., 1971. Larval dispersal as a means of genetic exchange between geographically separated populations of shallow-water benthic marine gastropods. Biol. Bull. 140: 284-322.
Shrader-Frechette, K. S. and McCoy, E., 1990. Theory reduction and explanation in ecology. Oikos 58: 109-14.
Simberloff, D., 1980. A succession of paradigms in ecology: essentialism, materialism and probabilism. Pp. 63-99 in Conceptual Issues in Ecology ed by E. Saarinen. Reidel: Dordrecht.
Stewart-Oaten, A., Murdoch, W. M. and Parker, K. R., 1986. Environmental impact assessment: ‘pseudoreplication’ in time? Ecology 67: 929-40.
Suchanek, T. H., 1985. Mussels and their role in structuring rocky shore communities. Pp. 70-96 in The Ecology of Rocky Coasts ed by P. G. Moore and R. Seed. Hodder & Stoughton: London.
Thomas, L., 1996. Monitoring long-term population change: why are there so many analysis methods? Ecology 77: 49-58.
Thorson, G., 1950. Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates. Biol. Rev. 25: 1-45.
Underwood, A. J., 1978. An experimental evaluation of competition between three species of intertidal prosobranch gastropods. Oecologia (Berl.) 33: 185-208.
Underwood, A. J., 1980. The effects of grazing by gastropods and physical factors on the upper limits of distribution of intertidal macroalgae. Oecologia (Berl.) 46: 201-13.
Underwood, A. J., 1981. Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology. Ann. Rev. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 19: 513-605.
Underwood, A. J., 1984. Vertical and seasonal patterns in competition for microalgae between intertidal gastropods. Oecologia (Berl.) 64: 211-22.
Underwood, A. J., 1985. Physical factors and biological interactions: the necessity and nature of ecological experiments. Pp. 371-90 in The Ecology of Rocky Coasts ed by P. G. Moore and R. Seed. Hodder & Stoughton: London.
Underwood, A. J., 1989. The analysis of stress in natural populations. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 37: 51-78.
Underwood, A. J., 1990. Experiments in ecology and management: their logics, functions and interpretations. Aust. J. Ecol. 15: 365-89.
Underwood, A. J., 1991a. Biological monitoring for human impact: how little it can achieve. Pp. 105-23 in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Congress of the Australian Society of Limnology, Jabiru, NT, 1990 ed by R. Hyne. Office of the Supervising Scientist, Alligator Rivers Region, Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Underwood, A. J., 1991b. The logic of ecological experiments: a case history from studies of the distribution of macro-algae on rocky intertidal shores. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 71: 841-66.
Underwood, A. J., 1991c. Beyond BACI: experimental designs for detecting human environmental impacts on temporal variations in natural populations. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 42: 569-87.
Underwood, A. J., 1992. Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impact on populations in the real, but variable, world. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 161: 145-78.
Underwood, A. J., 1994. Rocky intertidal shores. Pp. 273-96 in Marine Biology ed by L. S. Hammond and R. Synnot. Longman-Cheshire: Melbourne.
Underwood, A. J., 1995. Ecological research and (and research into) environmental management. Ecol. Appl. 5: 232-47.
Underwood, A. J., 1997a Experiments in Ecology: Their Logical Design and Interpretation Using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Underwood, A. J., 1997b. Environmental decision-making and the precautionary principle: what does this mean in environmental sampling practice? Landsc. Urban Plann. 37: 137-46.
Underwood, A. J., 1998. Relationships between environmental research and environmental management. Landsc. Urban Plann. 40: 123-30.
Underwood, A. J., 1999. History and recruitment in structure of intertidal assemblages on rocky shores: an introduction to problems for interpretation of natural change. Pp 79-96 in Aquatic Life-Cycle Strategies ed by M. Whitfield. Institute of Biology: London.
Underwood, A. J. and Barrett, G., 1990. Experiments on the influence of oysters on the distribution, abundance and sizes of the gastropod Bembicium auratum in a mangrove swamp in New South Wales. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 137: 25-45.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 1995. Rocky shores. Pp. 55-82 in Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate Australia ed by A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman. New South Wales University Press: Sydney.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 1996. Scales of spatial patterns of distribution of intertidal snails. Oecologia (Berl.) 107: 212-24.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 1998. A method for analysing spatial scales of variation in composition of assemblages. Oecologia (Berl.) 117: 570-8.
Underwood, A. J. and Denley, E. J., 1984. Paradigms, explanations and generalizations in models for the structure of intertidal communities on rocky shores. Pp. 151-80 in Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence ed by D. R. Strong, D. Simberloff, L. G. Abele and A. Thistle. Princeton University Press: New Jersey.
Underwood, A. J. and Fairweather, P. G., 1989. Supply-side ecology and benthic marine assemblages. TREE 4: 16-20.
Underwood, A. J. and Peterson, C. H., 1988. Towards an ecological framework for investigating pollution. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 46: 227-34.
World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 Our Common Future. Oxford University Press: New York.
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References

Anderson, D. T., 1960. The life-histories of marine prosobranch gastropods. J. Malac. Soc. Aust. 4: 16-29.
Andrewartha, H. G. and Birch, L. C., 1954 The Distribution and Abundance of Animals. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Bart, J. and Schoultz, J. D., 1984. Reliability of singing bird surveys: changes in observer efficiency with avian density. Auk 101: 307-18.
Bell, J. D. and Westoby, M., 1987. Effects of an epiphytic alga on abundances of fish and decapods associated with the seagrass Zostera capricorni. Aust. J. Ecol. 12: 333-7.
Botkin, D. B., 1990 Discordant Harmonies. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Chapman, M. G., 1986. Assessment of some controls in experimental transplants of intertidal gastropods. J. Exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 103: 181-201.
Chapman, M. G., 1997. Scientific and community roles in intertidal conservation. Pp. 249-54 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J., 1994. Dispersal of the intertidal snail, Nodilittorina pyramidalis, in response to topographic complexity of the substratum. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 179: 145-69.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J., 1997a. Concepts and issues in restoration of mangrove forests in urban environments. Pp. 103-14 in Frontiers in Ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier Science: Oxford.
Chapman, M. G. and Underwood, A. J., 1997b Testing the Effectiveness of Intertidal Protected Areas in New South Wales. Final Report, Project D504 for Environment Australia. Institute of Marine Ecology, University of Sydney: Sydney.
Clarke, K. R., 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust. J. Ecol. 18: 117-43.
Clarke, K. R. and Ainsworth, M., 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 92: 205-19.
Clarke, K. R. and Green, R. H., 1988. Statistical design and analysis for a ‘biological effects’ study. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 46: 213-26.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick, R. M., 1998. Quantifying structural redundancy in ecological communities. Oecologia (Berl.) 113: 278-89.
Connell, J. H., 1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus.Ecology 42: 710-23.
Connor, E. F. and Simberloff, D., 1979. You can't falsify ecological hypotheses without data. Bull. Ecol. Soc. America 60: 154-5.
Connor, E. F. and Simberloff, D., 1986. Competition, scientific method and null models in ecology. Am. Sci. 75: 155-62.
Dawkins, H. C., 1981. The misuse of t-tests, LSD and multiple-range tests. Bull. Brit. Ecol. Soc. 12: 112-5.
Dayton, P. K., 1971. Competition, disturbance and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol. Monogr. 41: 351-89.
Elliott, J. M., 1977 Methods for the Analyses of Samples of Benthic Invertebrates. Freshwater Biological Association Scientific Publication No. 25: Reading.
Faanes, C. A. and Bystrak, D., 1981. The role of observer bias in the North American breeding bird survey. Stud. Avian Biol. 6: 353-9.
Fairweather, P. G., 1988. Predation creates haloes of bare space among prey on rocky shores in New South Wales. Aust. J. Ecol. 13: 401-9.
Fairweather, P. G., 1993. Links between ecology and ecophilosophy, ethics and the requirements of environmental management. Aust. J. Ecol. 18: 3-19.
GESAMP, 1980 Monitoring Biological Variables Related to Marine Pollution. Reports and Studies, No. 12, UNESCO: Paris. 1-22 pp.
Gray, J. S., 1990. Statistics and the precautionary principle. Mar. Poll. Bull. 21: 174-6.
Green, R. H., 1979 Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for Environmental Biologists. Wiley: Chichester.
Green, R. H. and Hobson, K. D., 1970. Spatial and temporal structure in a temperate intertidal community, with special emphasis on Gemma gemma (Pelecypoda: Mollusca). Ecology 51: 999-1011.
Hawkins, S. J. and Hartnoll, R. G., 1980. A study of the small-scale relationship between species number and area on a rocky shore. Est. Coast. Mar. Sci. 10: 201-14.
Hurlbert, S. J., 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 54: 187-211.
Jernakoff, P., 1985a. Interactions between the limpet Patelloida latistrigata and algae on an intertidal rock platform. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 23: 71-8.
Jernakoff, P., 1985b. An experimental evaluation of the influence of barnacles, crevices and seasonal patterns of grazing on the algal diversity and cover in an intertidal barnacle zone. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 88: 287-302.
Keith, K. J. and Foster, D. J., 1996. Community monitoring for catchment management. Pp. 391-4 in Downstream Effects of Land Use ed by H. M. Hunter, A. G. Eyles and G. E. Rayment. Department of Natural Resources: Queensland.
Kelly, A., 1995. A mudmap for landcare: the technique of participatory research. Pp. 93-106 in Participative Approaches For Landcare: Perspectives, Policies, Programs ed by S. Chamala and K. Keith. Australian Academic Press: Brisbane.
Kennelly, S. J., 1989. Effects of kelp canopies on understorey species due to shade and scour. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 50: 215-24.
Keough, M. J. and Quinn, G. P., 1991. Causality and the choice of measurements for detecting human impacts in marine environments. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 42: 539-54.
Legendre, P. and Anderson, M. J., 1999. Distance-based redundancy analysis: testing multispecies responses in multifactorial ecological experiments. Ecol. Monogr. 69: 1-24.
Ludwig, D., Hilborn, R. and Walters, C., 1993. Uncertainty, resource exploitation, and conservation: lessons from history. Science 260: 17.
Mapstone, B. D., Underwood, A. J. and Creese, R. G., 1984. Experimental analysis of the commensal relation between intertidal gastropods Patelloida mufria and the trochid Austrocochlea constricta.Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 17: 85-100.
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 1988. Biological Effects of Pollutants. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 46.
McGuinness, K. A., 1984a. Equations and explanations in the study of species-area curves. Biol. Rev. 59: 423-40.
McGuinness, K. A., 1984b. Species-area relations of communities on intertidal boulders: testing the null hypothesis. J. Biogeog. 11: 439-56.
McIntosh, R. P., 1985 The Background of Ecology. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Merton, R. K., 1977 The Sociology of Science: an Episodic Memoir. Southern Illinois University Press: Carbondale, Illinois.
Mileikovsky, S. A., 1971. Types of larval development in marine bottom invertebrates, their distribution and ecological significance: a reevaluation. Mar. Biol. 10: 193-213.
Morrisey, D. J., Underwood, A. J., Stark, J. S. and Howitt, L., 1994. Temporal variation in concentrations of heavy metals in marine sediments. Est. Coast. Shelf Sci. 38: 271-82.
Paine, R. T., 1974. Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia (Berl.) 15: 93-120.
Peters, R. H., 1991 A Critique for Ecology. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Pielou, E. C., 1984 The Interpretation of Ecological Data: a Primer on Classification and Ordination. Wiley: New York.
Popper, K. R., 1968 The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson: London.
Sauer, J. R., Peterjohn, B. G. and Link, W. A., 1994. Observer differences in the North American breeding bird survey. Auk 111: 50-62.
Scheltema, R. S., 1971. Larval dispersal as a means of genetic exchange between geographically separated populations of shallow-water benthic marine gastropods. Biol. Bull. 140: 284-322.
Shrader-Frechette, K. S. and McCoy, E., 1990. Theory reduction and explanation in ecology. Oikos 58: 109-14.
Simberloff, D., 1980. A succession of paradigms in ecology: essentialism, materialism and probabilism. Pp. 63-99 in Conceptual Issues in Ecology ed by E. Saarinen. Reidel: Dordrecht.
Stewart-Oaten, A., Murdoch, W. M. and Parker, K. R., 1986. Environmental impact assessment: ‘pseudoreplication’ in time? Ecology 67: 929-40.
Suchanek, T. H., 1985. Mussels and their role in structuring rocky shore communities. Pp. 70-96 in The Ecology of Rocky Coasts ed by P. G. Moore and R. Seed. Hodder & Stoughton: London.
Thomas, L., 1996. Monitoring long-term population change: why are there so many analysis methods? Ecology 77: 49-58.
Thorson, G., 1950. Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates. Biol. Rev. 25: 1-45.
Underwood, A. J., 1978. An experimental evaluation of competition between three species of intertidal prosobranch gastropods. Oecologia (Berl.) 33: 185-208.
Underwood, A. J., 1980. The effects of grazing by gastropods and physical factors on the upper limits of distribution of intertidal macroalgae. Oecologia (Berl.) 46: 201-13.
Underwood, A. J., 1981. Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology. Ann. Rev. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 19: 513-605.
Underwood, A. J., 1984. Vertical and seasonal patterns in competition for microalgae between intertidal gastropods. Oecologia (Berl.) 64: 211-22.
Underwood, A. J., 1985. Physical factors and biological interactions: the necessity and nature of ecological experiments. Pp. 371-90 in The Ecology of Rocky Coasts ed by P. G. Moore and R. Seed. Hodder & Stoughton: London.
Underwood, A. J., 1989. The analysis of stress in natural populations. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 37: 51-78.
Underwood, A. J., 1990. Experiments in ecology and management: their logics, functions and interpretations. Aust. J. Ecol. 15: 365-89.
Underwood, A. J., 1991a. Biological monitoring for human impact: how little it can achieve. Pp. 105-23 in Proceedings of the Twenty-ninth Congress of the Australian Society of Limnology, Jabiru, NT, 1990 ed by R. Hyne. Office of the Supervising Scientist, Alligator Rivers Region, Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Underwood, A. J., 1991b. The logic of ecological experiments: a case history from studies of the distribution of macro-algae on rocky intertidal shores. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U. K. 71: 841-66.
Underwood, A. J., 1991c. Beyond BACI: experimental designs for detecting human environmental impacts on temporal variations in natural populations. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 42: 569-87.
Underwood, A. J., 1992. Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impact on populations in the real, but variable, world. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 161: 145-78.
Underwood, A. J., 1994. Rocky intertidal shores. Pp. 273-96 in Marine Biology ed by L. S. Hammond and R. Synnot. Longman-Cheshire: Melbourne.
Underwood, A. J., 1995. Ecological research and (and research into) environmental management. Ecol. Appl. 5: 232-47.
Underwood, A. J., 1997a Experiments in Ecology: Their Logical Design and Interpretation Using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Underwood, A. J., 1997b. Environmental decision-making and the precautionary principle: what does this mean in environmental sampling practice? Landsc. Urban Plann. 37: 137-46.
Underwood, A. J., 1998. Relationships between environmental research and environmental management. Landsc. Urban Plann. 40: 123-30.
Underwood, A. J., 1999. History and recruitment in structure of intertidal assemblages on rocky shores: an introduction to problems for interpretation of natural change. Pp 79-96 in Aquatic Life-Cycle Strategies ed by M. Whitfield. Institute of Biology: London.
Underwood, A. J. and Barrett, G., 1990. Experiments on the influence of oysters on the distribution, abundance and sizes of the gastropod Bembicium auratum in a mangrove swamp in New South Wales. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 137: 25-45.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 1995. Rocky shores. Pp. 55-82 in Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate Australia ed by A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman. New South Wales University Press: Sydney.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 1996. Scales of spatial patterns of distribution of intertidal snails. Oecologia (Berl.) 107: 212-24.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 1998. A method for analysing spatial scales of variation in composition of assemblages. Oecologia (Berl.) 117: 570-8.
Underwood, A. J. and Denley, E. J., 1984. Paradigms, explanations and generalizations in models for the structure of intertidal communities on rocky shores. Pp. 151-80 in Ecological Communities: Conceptual Issues and the Evidence ed by D. R. Strong, D. Simberloff, L. G. Abele and A. Thistle. Princeton University Press: New Jersey.
Underwood, A. J. and Fairweather, P. G., 1989. Supply-side ecology and benthic marine assemblages. TREE 4: 16-20.
Underwood, A. J. and Peterson, C. H., 1988. Towards an ecological framework for investigating pollution. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 46: 227-34.
World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987 Our Common Future. Oxford University Press: New York.
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