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A clearly-articulated paradigm is described that guides much current research-based conservation effort. This paradigm, which uses a reductionist approach, provides a method for unambiguously identifying threats to biodiversity, such as causes of species' declines, and a method for distinguishing optimal management solutions. In contrast, it is argued that community-based conservation is not guided by any evident paradigm; actions can be grouped instead into different themes that have been labelled here as reactive, interactive, proactive and opportunistic. Because research can address only some conservation problems and community efforts usually are broad but diffuse, conservation of biodiversity would be best served if the two approaches were integrated. To achieve this objective, scientists must become more involved in activities at the community level, whereas community groups must ensure that their ‘on-ground’ actions are rigorous and defensible. Some examples of successful collaborations are provided in the paper.

Anon., 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Baker, L., Woenne-Green, S. and the Mutitjulu Community, 1993. Anangu knowledge of vertebrates and the environment. Pp. 79-132 in Uluru Fauna. The Distribution and Abundance of Vertebrate Fauna of Uluru (Ayers Rock-Mount Olga) National Park, N. T., eds J. R. W. Reid, J. A. Kerle and S. R. Morton. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Bennett, A., Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. (eds), 1995 People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Bennett, E. L., Nyaoi, A. J. and Sompud, J., 2000. Saving Borneo's bacon: the sustainability of hunting in Sarawak and Sabah. Pp. 305-324 in Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests, eds J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett. Columbia University Press, New York.
Burgin, S., 2002. Tragic consequences for conservation of mis-defining the term ‘community’. Pp. 1-7 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, eds D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Calver, M. C., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W., 1999. Towards scientific contributions in applying the precautionary principle: an example from Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 63-72.
Carlton, C., 1998 Community Biodiversity Survey Manual. National Parks Association of NSW Inc., and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A., 1996 Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Chazal, A. C. and Niewiarowski, P. H., 1998. Responses of mole salamanders to clear cutting: using field experiments in forest management. Ecological Applications 8: 1133-1143.
Clark, T. W. and Seebeck, J. H. (eds), 1990 Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois.
Costello, D. A., Lunt, I. D. and Williams, J. E., 2000. Effects of invasion by the indigenous shrub Acacia sophorae on plant composition of coastal grasslands in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 96: 113-121.
Cox, P. A. and Elmqvist, T., 1993. Ecocolonialism and indigenous knowledge systems: village controlled rainforest preserves in Samoa. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 6-13.
Craig, J. L., Mitchell, N. and Saunders, D. A. (eds), 2000 Nature Conservation 5: Conservation in Production Environments: Managing the Matrix. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Danks, A., 1997. Conservation of the Noisy Scrubbird: a review of 35 years of research and management. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 341-349.
Denton, J. S., Hitchings, S. P., Beebee, T. J. C. and Gent, A., 1997. A recovery program for the Natterjack Toad ( Bufo calamita) in Britain. Conservation Biology 11: 1329-1338.
Dickman, C. R., 1996. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73 in Back from the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, eds S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Dovers, S. R. and Mobbs, C. D., 1997. An alluring prospect? Ecology, and the requirements of adaptive management. Pp. 39-52 in Frontiers in Ecology: Building the Links, eds N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier Science, Oxford.
Fisher, D. O., 2000. Effects of vegetation structure, food and shelter on the home range and habitat use of an endangered wallaby. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 660-671.
Fletcher, D. J. and Manly, B. F. J. (eds), 1994 Statistics in Ecology and Environmental Monitoring. University of Otago Press, Dunedin.
Franklin, J. F., 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202-205.
Goodall, D. W., 1999. Environmental management: the precautionary principle and null hypotheses. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 78-80.
Hackel, J. D., 1999. Community conservation and the future of Africa's wildlife. Conservation Biology 13: 726-734.
Innes, J., 1992-95. 1992/93 and 1994/95 Kokako research-by-management reports. Unpublished reports, Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Jerogin, P., 1997. The developers perspective: working towards a more meaningful outcome. Pp. 136-141 in On the Brink: Your Bush, their Habitat, our Act, ed. H. Webb. Nature Conservation Council of NSW Inc., Sydney.
Kessler, M., Faris, F., VanderGragt, M. and Pittock, J., 1998 We can Help: a Community Threatened Species Action Guide. World Wide Fund for Nature Australia, Sydney.
Kiff, L. F., 1989. DDE and the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus: the end of a story? Pp. 477-480 in Raptors in the Modern World, eds B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin.
Kothari, A. (ed.), 1998 Communities and Conservation: Natural Resource Management in South and Central Asia. Sage Publications, New Delhi.
Latz, P. K., 1995 Bushfires and Bushtucker: Aboriginal Plant use in Central Australia. IAD Press, Alice Springs.
Laurance, W. F., McDonald, K. R. and Speare, R., 1996. Epidemic disease and the catastrophic decline of Australian rain forest frogs. Conservation Biology 10: 406-413.
Low, T., 1999 Feral Future. Viking Books, Ringwood, Victoria.
Lunney, D., Grant, T., Matthews, A., Esson, C., Moon, C. and Ellis, M., 1997. Determining the distribution of the Platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the Eden region of south-eastern New South Wales through community-based surveys. Australian Mammalogy 20: 239-250.
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Coburn, D., 2000. Contribution of community knowledge of vertebrate fauna to management and planning. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 175-184.
Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E. F. and Sambrook, J., 1982 Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
Marsh, H., Harris, A. N. M. and Lawler, I. R., 1997. The sustainability of the indigenous Dugong fishery in Torres Strait, Australia/Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology 11: 1375-1386.
McCoy, E. D., Sutton, P. E. and Mushinsky, H. R., 1999. The role of guesswork in conserving the threatened Sand Skink. Conservation Biology 13: 190-194.
McIntyre, M. J., 1995. Conservation of the Brolga Grus rubicundus in Victoria: the role of private land. Pp. 166-169 in People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery, eds A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Mead, R., 1988 The Design of Experiments: Statistical Principles for Practical Application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
O'Rourke, C., 2001. Kelly's 250-hectare grab for votes. Sydney Morning Herald, October 27-28: 17.
Otley, H. M., 2001. The use of a community-based survey to determine the distribution of the Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the Huon River catchment, southern Tasmania. Australian Zoologist 31: 632-641.
Paddle, R., 2000 The Last Tasmanian Tiger: the History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Popper, K. R., 1968 The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson, London.
Rabinowitz, A., 1995. Helping a species go extinct: the Sumatran Rhino in Borneo. Conservation Biology 9: 482-488.
Rabinowitz, A. R., 1997 Wildlife Field Research and Conservation Training Manual. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.
Sands, D. and Scott, S., 1996. Richmond Birdwing. Nature Australia 25: 24-29.
Sands, D. P. A., Scott, S. E. and Moffatt, R., 1997. The threatened Richmond Birdwing butterfly ( Ornithoptera richmondia (Gray)): a community conservation project. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 449-453.
Saunders, A., 1996. Species recovery planning: some New Zealand case studies. Pp. 83-86 in Back from the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, eds S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Sharley, T., 1997. The role of science and scientists at Chowilla. Pp. 246-261 in Saving our Natural Heritage? The Role of Science in Managing Australia's Ecosystems, eds C. Copeland and D. Lewis. Halstead Press, Rushcutters Bay.
Smales, I., Menkhorst, P., and Horrocks, G., 1995. The Helmeted Honeyeater recovery programme: a view of its organization and operation. Pp. 35-44 in People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery, eds A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Springer, P. F., Byrd, G. V. and Woolington, D. W., 1978. Reestablishing Aleutian Canada Geese. Pp. 331-338 in Endangered Birds. Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species, ed. S. A. Temple. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
State of the Environment Advisory Council, 1996 Australia: State of the Environment 1996. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Steinmetz, R. and Mather, R., 1996. Impact of Karen villages on the fauna of Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary: a participatory research project. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 44: 23-40.
Underwood, A. J., 1990. Experiments in ecology and management: their logics, functions and interpretations. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 365-389.
Underwood, A. J., 1991. The logic of ecological experiments: a case history from studies of the distribution of macro-algae on rocky intertidal shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U. K. 71: 841-866.
Underwood, A. J., 1997 Experiments in Ecology: their Logical Design and Interpretation using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community “monitoring”. Pp. 20-37 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, eds D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Weber, T. P., 1999. A plea for a diversity of scientific styles in ecology. Oikos 84: 526-529.
Wells, M. and Brandon, K., 1992 People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. The World Bank, Washington, D. C.
Western, D., Wright, R. M. and Strum, S. (eds), 1994 Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-based Conservation. Island Press, Washington, D. C.
Williams, S., 1996. Community involvement in the species recovery process: insights into successful partnerships. Pp. 87-96 in Back from the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, eds S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Yaffee, S. L. and Wondolleck, J. M., 2000. Making collaboration work. Conservation Biology in Practice 1: 17-19, 22-25.
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References

Anon., 1999 NSW Biodiversity Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Baker, L., Woenne-Green, S. and the Mutitjulu Community, 1993. Anangu knowledge of vertebrates and the environment. Pp. 79-132 in Uluru Fauna. The Distribution and Abundance of Vertebrate Fauna of Uluru (Ayers Rock-Mount Olga) National Park, N. T., eds J. R. W. Reid, J. A. Kerle and S. R. Morton. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.
Bennett, A., Backhouse, G. and Clark, T. (eds), 1995 People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Bennett, E. L., Nyaoi, A. J. and Sompud, J., 2000. Saving Borneo's bacon: the sustainability of hunting in Sarawak and Sabah. Pp. 305-324 in Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests, eds J. G. Robinson and E. L. Bennett. Columbia University Press, New York.
Burgin, S., 2002. Tragic consequences for conservation of mis-defining the term ‘community’. Pp. 1-7 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, eds D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Calver, M. C., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W., 1999. Towards scientific contributions in applying the precautionary principle: an example from Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 63-72.
Carlton, C., 1998 Community Biodiversity Survey Manual. National Parks Association of NSW Inc., and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A., 1996 Conservation Biology in Theory and Practice. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
Chazal, A. C. and Niewiarowski, P. H., 1998. Responses of mole salamanders to clear cutting: using field experiments in forest management. Ecological Applications 8: 1133-1143.
Clark, T. W. and Seebeck, J. H. (eds), 1990 Management and Conservation of Small Populations. Chicago Zoological Society, Brookfield, Illinois.
Costello, D. A., Lunt, I. D. and Williams, J. E., 2000. Effects of invasion by the indigenous shrub Acacia sophorae on plant composition of coastal grasslands in south-eastern Australia. Biological Conservation 96: 113-121.
Cox, P. A. and Elmqvist, T., 1993. Ecocolonialism and indigenous knowledge systems: village controlled rainforest preserves in Samoa. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 6-13.
Craig, J. L., Mitchell, N. and Saunders, D. A. (eds), 2000 Nature Conservation 5: Conservation in Production Environments: Managing the Matrix. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Danks, A., 1997. Conservation of the Noisy Scrubbird: a review of 35 years of research and management. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 341-349.
Denton, J. S., Hitchings, S. P., Beebee, T. J. C. and Gent, A., 1997. A recovery program for the Natterjack Toad ( Bufo calamita) in Britain. Conservation Biology 11: 1329-1338.
Dickman, C. R., 1996. Incorporating science into recovery planning for threatened species. Pp. 63-73 in Back from the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, eds S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Dovers, S. R. and Mobbs, C. D., 1997. An alluring prospect? Ecology, and the requirements of adaptive management. Pp. 39-52 in Frontiers in Ecology: Building the Links, eds N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier Science, Oxford.
Fisher, D. O., 2000. Effects of vegetation structure, food and shelter on the home range and habitat use of an endangered wallaby. Journal of Applied Ecology 37: 660-671.
Fletcher, D. J. and Manly, B. F. J. (eds), 1994 Statistics in Ecology and Environmental Monitoring. University of Otago Press, Dunedin.
Franklin, J. F., 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems, or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202-205.
Goodall, D. W., 1999. Environmental management: the precautionary principle and null hypotheses. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 78-80.
Hackel, J. D., 1999. Community conservation and the future of Africa's wildlife. Conservation Biology 13: 726-734.
Innes, J., 1992-95. 1992/93 and 1994/95 Kokako research-by-management reports. Unpublished reports, Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Jerogin, P., 1997. The developers perspective: working towards a more meaningful outcome. Pp. 136-141 in On the Brink: Your Bush, their Habitat, our Act, ed. H. Webb. Nature Conservation Council of NSW Inc., Sydney.
Kessler, M., Faris, F., VanderGragt, M. and Pittock, J., 1998 We can Help: a Community Threatened Species Action Guide. World Wide Fund for Nature Australia, Sydney.
Kiff, L. F., 1989. DDE and the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus: the end of a story? Pp. 477-480 in Raptors in the Modern World, eds B. U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin.
Kothari, A. (ed.), 1998 Communities and Conservation: Natural Resource Management in South and Central Asia. Sage Publications, New Delhi.
Latz, P. K., 1995 Bushfires and Bushtucker: Aboriginal Plant use in Central Australia. IAD Press, Alice Springs.
Laurance, W. F., McDonald, K. R. and Speare, R., 1996. Epidemic disease and the catastrophic decline of Australian rain forest frogs. Conservation Biology 10: 406-413.
Low, T., 1999 Feral Future. Viking Books, Ringwood, Victoria.
Lunney, D., Grant, T., Matthews, A., Esson, C., Moon, C. and Ellis, M., 1997. Determining the distribution of the Platypus ( Ornithorhynchus anatinus) in the Eden region of south-eastern New South Wales through community-based surveys. Australian Mammalogy 20: 239-250.
Lunney, D., O'Neill, L., Matthews, A. and Coburn, D., 2000. Contribution of community knowledge of vertebrate fauna to management and planning. Ecological Management and Restoration 1: 175-184.
Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E. F. and Sambrook, J., 1982 Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.
Marsh, H., Harris, A. N. M. and Lawler, I. R., 1997. The sustainability of the indigenous Dugong fishery in Torres Strait, Australia/Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology 11: 1375-1386.
McCoy, E. D., Sutton, P. E. and Mushinsky, H. R., 1999. The role of guesswork in conserving the threatened Sand Skink. Conservation Biology 13: 190-194.
McIntyre, M. J., 1995. Conservation of the Brolga Grus rubicundus in Victoria: the role of private land. Pp. 166-169 in People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery, eds A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Mead, R., 1988 The Design of Experiments: Statistical Principles for Practical Application. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
O'Rourke, C., 2001. Kelly's 250-hectare grab for votes. Sydney Morning Herald, October 27-28: 17.
Otley, H. M., 2001. The use of a community-based survey to determine the distribution of the Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus in the Huon River catchment, southern Tasmania. Australian Zoologist 31: 632-641.
Paddle, R., 2000 The Last Tasmanian Tiger: the History and Extinction of the Thylacine. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Popper, K. R., 1968 The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Hutchinson, London.
Rabinowitz, A., 1995. Helping a species go extinct: the Sumatran Rhino in Borneo. Conservation Biology 9: 482-488.
Rabinowitz, A. R., 1997 Wildlife Field Research and Conservation Training Manual. Wildlife Conservation Society, New York.
Sands, D. and Scott, S., 1996. Richmond Birdwing. Nature Australia 25: 24-29.
Sands, D. P. A., Scott, S. E. and Moffatt, R., 1997. The threatened Richmond Birdwing butterfly ( Ornithoptera richmondia (Gray)): a community conservation project. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 449-453.
Saunders, A., 1996. Species recovery planning: some New Zealand case studies. Pp. 83-86 in Back from the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, eds S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Sharley, T., 1997. The role of science and scientists at Chowilla. Pp. 246-261 in Saving our Natural Heritage? The Role of Science in Managing Australia's Ecosystems, eds C. Copeland and D. Lewis. Halstead Press, Rushcutters Bay.
Smales, I., Menkhorst, P., and Horrocks, G., 1995. The Helmeted Honeyeater recovery programme: a view of its organization and operation. Pp. 35-44 in People and Nature Conservation: Perspectives on Private Land Use and Endangered Species Recovery, eds A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Springer, P. F., Byrd, G. V. and Woolington, D. W., 1978. Reestablishing Aleutian Canada Geese. Pp. 331-338 in Endangered Birds. Management Techniques for Preserving Threatened Species, ed. S. A. Temple. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.
State of the Environment Advisory Council, 1996 Australia: State of the Environment 1996. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Steinmetz, R. and Mather, R., 1996. Impact of Karen villages on the fauna of Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary: a participatory research project. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 44: 23-40.
Underwood, A. J., 1990. Experiments in ecology and management: their logics, functions and interpretations. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 365-389.
Underwood, A. J., 1991. The logic of ecological experiments: a case history from studies of the distribution of macro-algae on rocky intertidal shores. Journal of the Marine Biological Association, U. K. 71: 841-866.
Underwood, A. J., 1997 Experiments in Ecology: their Logical Design and Interpretation using Analysis of Variance. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G., 2002. Conservation of coastal organisms depends on scientific realism, not community “monitoring”. Pp. 20-37 in A Clash of Paradigms: Community and Research-based Conservation, eds D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Weber, T. P., 1999. A plea for a diversity of scientific styles in ecology. Oikos 84: 526-529.
Wells, M. and Brandon, K., 1992 People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities. The World Bank, Washington, D. C.
Western, D., Wright, R. M. and Strum, S. (eds), 1994 Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-based Conservation. Island Press, Washington, D. C.
Williams, S., 1996. Community involvement in the species recovery process: insights into successful partnerships. Pp. 87-96 in Back from the Brink: Refining the Threatened Species Recovery Process, eds S. Stephens and S. Maxwell. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Yaffee, S. L. and Wondolleck, J. M., 2000. Making collaboration work. Conservation Biology in Practice 1: 17-19, 22-25.
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