Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

There are two philosophies about relationships between humans and nature, anthropocentric and ecocentric. Societies holding an anthropocentric view consider humans and nature to be separate. In contrast, societies with an ecocentric philosophy view humans as an integral part of nature. Conservation is a major concern of modern societies. Loss of populations, sometimes of species, and degradation of other natural resources are large issues. Anthropocentric views which keep nature and humans apart and remove conservation from mainstream society are not going to provide the basis for conservation into the 21st century. We have to integrate people and nature, and involve people in conservation across landscapes within and outside parks and reserves. This will require working with local people, understanding cultural factors, sharing knowledge and power, and developing and applying stewardship arrangements including incentives for conservation on private and leasehold land.

Adam, P. 1995. Urbanization and transport. Pp. 55-75 in Conserving biodiversity: threats and solutions ed by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D.A Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Anonymous 1998. Filling the gaps in protected areas. Pp. 34-48 in National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium workshop papers. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1998 Projections of the populations of Australia, States and Territories. ABS: Canberra.
Beeton, R. J. S. 1997. Is anyone out there ? Do the rangelands have a future ? Pp. 1-10 in Where the city meets the bush: the importance of effective communication ed by E. J. Moll, J. Coutts, M. J. Page and C. F. Kilpatrick. University of Queensland: Gatton.
Bennett, A. F. 1999 Linkages in the landscape. IUCN: Cambridge.
Benson, J. S. 1997. Conservation of native lowland grassland remnants in south-eastern Australia. Pp. 424-8 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Binning, C. E. 1997. Beyond reserves; options for achieving nature conservation objectives in rural landscapes. Pp. 155-68 in Frontiers in ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier: Oxford.
Binning, C. and Young, M. 1997 Motivating people - using management agreements to conserve remnant vegetation. Paper 1/97. National R & D Program on Rehabilitation, Management and Conservation of Remnant Vegetation. LWRRDC and Bushcare: Canberra.
Binning, C. and Young, M. 1999 Conservation hindered. Research Report 3/99. National R & D Program on Rehabilitation, Management and Conservation of Remnant Vegetation. LWRRDC and Bushcare: Canberra.
Briggs, S. 1998. Communication and motivation - essential ingredients in working with landholders for wetland conservation. Natural Resource Management 1(2): 9-12.
Burbidge, A. A. and Wallace, K. J. 1995. Practical methods for conserving biodiversity. Pp. 11-26 in Conserving biodiversity: threats and solutions ed by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Caughley, J., Bomford, M. and McNee, A. 1996. Use of wildlife by indigenous Australians: issues and concepts. Pp. 7-9 in Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders ed by M. Bomford and J. Caughley. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Clair, J. A., Millman, J. and Whelan-Karhan, K. S. 1994. Towards an environmentally sensitive ecophilosophy for business management. Industry and Environment Crisis Quarterly 9: 289-326.
Collins, J., Klomp, N. and Birckhead, J. 1996. Aboriginal use of wildlife: past, present and future. Pp. 14-26 in Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders ed by M. Bomford and J. Caughley. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Craig, J. L. 1997. Managing bird populations: for whom and at what cost. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 172-82.
Daily, G. C. 1997. Introduction: What are ecosystem services? Pp. 1-10 in Nature's services ed by G. C. Daily. Island Press: Washington, DC.
Dwyer, P. D. 1994. Modern conservation and indigenous peoples: in search of wisdom. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 91-7.
Eidsvik, H. 1998. Keynote address - visions for the new millenium. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Farrier, D. 1995. Policy instruments for conserving biodiversity on private land. Pp. 337-59 in Conservation biodiversity: threats and solutions ed by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Farrier, D. 1996. Implementing the in-situ conservation provisions of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in Australia: questioning the role of national parks. Australian Journal of Natural Resources Law and Policy 3: 1-24.
Fortin, M-J. and Gagnon, C. 1999. An assessment of social impacts of national parks on communities in Quebec, Canada. Environmental Conservation 26: 200-211.
Gilligan, B. 1998. The NPWS in the new millenium. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Grigg, G. and Lunney, D. 1995. Potential conservation benefits from kangaroo harvesting. Pp. 339-40 in Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife ed by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Grumbine, R. E. 1997. Reflections on “what is ecosystem management?”. Conservation Biology 11: 41-7.
Hobbs, R. J. and Saunders, D. A. (eds) 1993 Reintegrating fragmented landscapes. Springer-Verlag: New York.
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1995. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-37.
Jenkins, H. 1995. Conservation benefits from sustainable use. Pp. 337-38 in Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife ed by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. University of Queensland Press: Brisbane.
Kersten, S. 1995. In search of dialogue. Western Division Newsletter, September. NSW Agriculture: Dubbo, NSW.
Lefroy, E. C., Hobbs, R. J. and Scheltema, M. 1993. Reconciling agriculture and nature conservation: towards a restoration strategy for the Western Australian wheatbelt. Pp. 243-57 in Nature conservation 3: reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems ed by D. A. Saunders, R. J. Hobbs and P. R. Ehrlich. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Lunney, D. 1994. Royal Commission of 1901 on the Western Lands of NSW - an ecologist's summary. Pp. 221-40 in Future of the fauna of western New South Wales ed by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. Royal Zoological Society of NSW: Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 1997. The changing roles of state and local government in fauna conservation outside nature reserves: a case study of koalas in New South Wales. Pp. 97-106 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Moore, S. 1996. The role of trust in social networks: formation, function and fragility. Pp. 148-54 in Nature conservation 4: the role of networks ed by D. A. Saunders, J.L Craig and E. M. Mattiske. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Morton, S. R., Stafford Smith, D. M., Friedel, M. H., Griffin, G. F. and Pickup, G. 1995. The stewardship of arid Australia: ecology and landscape management. Journal of Environmental Management 43: 195-217.
Nash, R. 1967 Wilderness and the American mind. Yale University Press: New Haven.
NSW Minerals Council. Undated Guidelines for best practice community consultation. NSW Minerals Council: Sydney.
Phillips, A. 1998. Protected areas: taking stock at the end of the century. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Platt, S. J. and Ahern, L. D. 1996. Nature conservation on private land in Victoria - the role of Land for Wildlife. Pp. 300-11 in Nature conservation 4: the role of networks ed by D. A. Saunders, J.L Craig and E. M. Mattiske. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Ratcliffe, F. 1947 Flying fox and drifting sand. Angus and Robertson: Sydney.
Rayns, N. 1997. Partnerships in Australian Commonwealth fisheries management. Pp. 17-28 in Frontiers in ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier Science: Oxford.
Rose, D. B. 1984. Consciousness and responsibility in an Australian Aboriginal religion. Nelen Yubu 23.
Rose, D. B. 1996 Nourishing terrain. Heritage Commission: Canberra.
Saunders, D. A. 1996. Does our lack of vision threaten the viability of the reconstruction of disturbed ecosystems? Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 321-26.
Saunders, D. A., Hopkins, A. J. M. and How, R. A. (eds) 1990 Australian ecosystems: 200 years of utilization, degradation and reconstruction. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Saunders, D. A., Craig, J. L. and Mattiske, E. M. eds 1996 Nature conservation 4: the role of networks. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Sharp, N. 1998. Handing on the right to fish: the law of the land and cross-cultural co-operation in a gulf community in Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 95-104.
Shea, S. R., Abbott, I., Armstrong, J. A. and McNamara, K. J. 1997. Sustainable conservation: a new approach to nature conservation in Australia. Pp. 39-48 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Shulman, A. D. and Martinek, P. 1998. Managing institutional collaboration in catchment systems research. Pp. 65-70 in Farming action: catchment reaction ed by J. Williams, R. A. Hook and H. L. Gascoigne. CSIRO: Melbourne.
Siepen, G. and Stone, G. C. 1997. Identification of rural landholders’ requirements for nature conservation information. Pp. 226-32 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb, University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Stafford Smith, M., Morton, S. and Ash, A. 1997. On the future of pastoralism in Australia's rangelands. Pp. 7-16 in Frontiers in ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier: Oxford.
State of the Environment Advisory Council. 1996 Australia state of the environment report 1996. CSIRO: Collingwood, Vic.
Sturgess, G. 1998. Conservation and institutional diversity. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Taylor, S. G. 1990. Naturalness: the concept and its application to Australian ecosystems. Pp. 411-8 in Australian ecosystems: 200 years of utilization, degradation and reconstruction ed by D. A. Saunders, A. J. M. Hopkins and R. A. How. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Vardon, M., Missi, C. and Cleary, M. 1996. Commercial wildlife use: potential benefits and opportunities for indigenous Australians. Pp. 84-7 in Ecopolitics IX: perspectives on indigenous peoples management of environmental resources ed by R. Sultan, P. Josif, C. Mackinolty and J. Mackinolty. Northern Land Council: Darwin.
Visions Steering Committee. 1998 Report of the Steering Committee to the Minister for the Environment. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Weeks, P. and Packard, J. M. 1997. Acceptance of scientific management by natural resource dependent communities. Conservation Biology 11: 236-45.
Wills, R.T and Hobbs, R. J. eds 1998 Ecology for everyone: communicating ecology to scientists, the public and the politicians. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Young, M. D. 1992 Sustainable investment and resource use. UNESCO: Paris.
Young, M. 1997 Mining or minding: opportunities for Australia to improve conservation of remnant vegetation and to alleviate land degradation. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology: Canberra.
Young, M. and Howard, B. 1996. Can Australia afford a representative reserve network by 2000? Search 27: 22-6.
Young, M. D. and Gunningham, N. 1996. Mixing instruments and institutional arrangements for optimal biodiversity conservation. Pp. 141-165 in Investing in biological diversity, Proceedings of the OECD International Conference on Incentive Measures for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity. OECD: Cairns.
Young, M. D., Gunningham, N., Elix, J., Lambert, J., Howard, B., Grabowsky, P. and McCrone, E. 1996 Reimbursing the future. DEST Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 9. DEST: Canberra.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Adam, P. 1995. Urbanization and transport. Pp. 55-75 in Conserving biodiversity: threats and solutions ed by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D.A Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Anonymous 1998. Filling the gaps in protected areas. Pp. 34-48 in National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium workshop papers. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1998 Projections of the populations of Australia, States and Territories. ABS: Canberra.
Beeton, R. J. S. 1997. Is anyone out there ? Do the rangelands have a future ? Pp. 1-10 in Where the city meets the bush: the importance of effective communication ed by E. J. Moll, J. Coutts, M. J. Page and C. F. Kilpatrick. University of Queensland: Gatton.
Bennett, A. F. 1999 Linkages in the landscape. IUCN: Cambridge.
Benson, J. S. 1997. Conservation of native lowland grassland remnants in south-eastern Australia. Pp. 424-8 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Binning, C. E. 1997. Beyond reserves; options for achieving nature conservation objectives in rural landscapes. Pp. 155-68 in Frontiers in ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier: Oxford.
Binning, C. and Young, M. 1997 Motivating people - using management agreements to conserve remnant vegetation. Paper 1/97. National R & D Program on Rehabilitation, Management and Conservation of Remnant Vegetation. LWRRDC and Bushcare: Canberra.
Binning, C. and Young, M. 1999 Conservation hindered. Research Report 3/99. National R & D Program on Rehabilitation, Management and Conservation of Remnant Vegetation. LWRRDC and Bushcare: Canberra.
Briggs, S. 1998. Communication and motivation - essential ingredients in working with landholders for wetland conservation. Natural Resource Management 1(2): 9-12.
Burbidge, A. A. and Wallace, K. J. 1995. Practical methods for conserving biodiversity. Pp. 11-26 in Conserving biodiversity: threats and solutions ed by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Caughley, J., Bomford, M. and McNee, A. 1996. Use of wildlife by indigenous Australians: issues and concepts. Pp. 7-9 in Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders ed by M. Bomford and J. Caughley. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Clair, J. A., Millman, J. and Whelan-Karhan, K. S. 1994. Towards an environmentally sensitive ecophilosophy for business management. Industry and Environment Crisis Quarterly 9: 289-326.
Collins, J., Klomp, N. and Birckhead, J. 1996. Aboriginal use of wildlife: past, present and future. Pp. 14-26 in Sustainable use of wildlife by Aboriginal peoples and Torres Strait Islanders ed by M. Bomford and J. Caughley. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.
Craig, J. L. 1997. Managing bird populations: for whom and at what cost. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 172-82.
Daily, G. C. 1997. Introduction: What are ecosystem services? Pp. 1-10 in Nature's services ed by G. C. Daily. Island Press: Washington, DC.
Dwyer, P. D. 1994. Modern conservation and indigenous peoples: in search of wisdom. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 91-7.
Eidsvik, H. 1998. Keynote address - visions for the new millenium. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Farrier, D. 1995. Policy instruments for conserving biodiversity on private land. Pp. 337-59 in Conservation biodiversity: threats and solutions ed by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Farrier, D. 1996. Implementing the in-situ conservation provisions of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity in Australia: questioning the role of national parks. Australian Journal of Natural Resources Law and Policy 3: 1-24.
Fortin, M-J. and Gagnon, C. 1999. An assessment of social impacts of national parks on communities in Quebec, Canada. Environmental Conservation 26: 200-211.
Gilligan, B. 1998. The NPWS in the new millenium. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Grigg, G. and Lunney, D. 1995. Potential conservation benefits from kangaroo harvesting. Pp. 339-40 in Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife ed by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Grumbine, R. E. 1997. Reflections on “what is ecosystem management?”. Conservation Biology 11: 41-7.
Hobbs, R. J. and Saunders, D. A. (eds) 1993 Reintegrating fragmented landscapes. Springer-Verlag: New York.
Holling, C. S. and Meffe, G. K. 1995. Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conservation Biology 10: 328-37.
Jenkins, H. 1995. Conservation benefits from sustainable use. Pp. 337-38 in Conservation through sustainable use of wildlife ed by G. C. Grigg, P. T. Hale and D. Lunney. University of Queensland Press: Brisbane.
Kersten, S. 1995. In search of dialogue. Western Division Newsletter, September. NSW Agriculture: Dubbo, NSW.
Lefroy, E. C., Hobbs, R. J. and Scheltema, M. 1993. Reconciling agriculture and nature conservation: towards a restoration strategy for the Western Australian wheatbelt. Pp. 243-57 in Nature conservation 3: reconstruction of fragmented ecosystems ed by D. A. Saunders, R. J. Hobbs and P. R. Ehrlich. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Lunney, D. 1994. Royal Commission of 1901 on the Western Lands of NSW - an ecologist's summary. Pp. 221-40 in Future of the fauna of western New South Wales ed by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. Royal Zoological Society of NSW: Mosman, NSW.
Lunney, D. and Matthews, A. 1997. The changing roles of state and local government in fauna conservation outside nature reserves: a case study of koalas in New South Wales. Pp. 97-106 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Moore, S. 1996. The role of trust in social networks: formation, function and fragility. Pp. 148-54 in Nature conservation 4: the role of networks ed by D. A. Saunders, J.L Craig and E. M. Mattiske. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Morton, S. R., Stafford Smith, D. M., Friedel, M. H., Griffin, G. F. and Pickup, G. 1995. The stewardship of arid Australia: ecology and landscape management. Journal of Environmental Management 43: 195-217.
Nash, R. 1967 Wilderness and the American mind. Yale University Press: New Haven.
NSW Minerals Council. Undated Guidelines for best practice community consultation. NSW Minerals Council: Sydney.
Phillips, A. 1998. Protected areas: taking stock at the end of the century. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Platt, S. J. and Ahern, L. D. 1996. Nature conservation on private land in Victoria - the role of Land for Wildlife. Pp. 300-11 in Nature conservation 4: the role of networks ed by D. A. Saunders, J.L Craig and E. M. Mattiske. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Ratcliffe, F. 1947 Flying fox and drifting sand. Angus and Robertson: Sydney.
Rayns, N. 1997. Partnerships in Australian Commonwealth fisheries management. Pp. 17-28 in Frontiers in ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier Science: Oxford.
Rose, D. B. 1984. Consciousness and responsibility in an Australian Aboriginal religion. Nelen Yubu 23.
Rose, D. B. 1996 Nourishing terrain. Heritage Commission: Canberra.
Saunders, D. A. 1996. Does our lack of vision threaten the viability of the reconstruction of disturbed ecosystems? Pacific Conservation Biology 2: 321-26.
Saunders, D. A., Hopkins, A. J. M. and How, R. A. (eds) 1990 Australian ecosystems: 200 years of utilization, degradation and reconstruction. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Saunders, D. A., Craig, J. L. and Mattiske, E. M. eds 1996 Nature conservation 4: the role of networks. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Sharp, N. 1998. Handing on the right to fish: the law of the land and cross-cultural co-operation in a gulf community in Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 95-104.
Shea, S. R., Abbott, I., Armstrong, J. A. and McNamara, K. J. 1997. Sustainable conservation: a new approach to nature conservation in Australia. Pp. 39-48 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb. University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Shulman, A. D. and Martinek, P. 1998. Managing institutional collaboration in catchment systems research. Pp. 65-70 in Farming action: catchment reaction ed by J. Williams, R. A. Hook and H. L. Gascoigne. CSIRO: Melbourne.
Siepen, G. and Stone, G. C. 1997. Identification of rural landholders’ requirements for nature conservation information. Pp. 226-32 in Conservation outside nature reserves ed by P. Hale and D. Lamb, University of Queensland: Brisbane.
Stafford Smith, M., Morton, S. and Ash, A. 1997. On the future of pastoralism in Australia's rangelands. Pp. 7-16 in Frontiers in ecology ed by N. Klomp and I. Lunt. Elsevier: Oxford.
State of the Environment Advisory Council. 1996 Australia state of the environment report 1996. CSIRO: Collingwood, Vic.
Sturgess, G. 1998. Conservation and institutional diversity. In National Parks: visions for the new millenium symposium. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Taylor, S. G. 1990. Naturalness: the concept and its application to Australian ecosystems. Pp. 411-8 in Australian ecosystems: 200 years of utilization, degradation and reconstruction ed by D. A. Saunders, A. J. M. Hopkins and R. A. How. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Vardon, M., Missi, C. and Cleary, M. 1996. Commercial wildlife use: potential benefits and opportunities for indigenous Australians. Pp. 84-7 in Ecopolitics IX: perspectives on indigenous peoples management of environmental resources ed by R. Sultan, P. Josif, C. Mackinolty and J. Mackinolty. Northern Land Council: Darwin.
Visions Steering Committee. 1998 Report of the Steering Committee to the Minister for the Environment. NPWS: Hurstville, NSW.
Weeks, P. and Packard, J. M. 1997. Acceptance of scientific management by natural resource dependent communities. Conservation Biology 11: 236-45.
Wills, R.T and Hobbs, R. J. eds 1998 Ecology for everyone: communicating ecology to scientists, the public and the politicians. Surrey Beatty: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Young, M. D. 1992 Sustainable investment and resource use. UNESCO: Paris.
Young, M. 1997 Mining or minding: opportunities for Australia to improve conservation of remnant vegetation and to alleviate land degradation. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology: Canberra.
Young, M. and Howard, B. 1996. Can Australia afford a representative reserve network by 2000? Search 27: 22-6.
Young, M. D. and Gunningham, N. 1996. Mixing instruments and institutional arrangements for optimal biodiversity conservation. Pp. 141-165 in Investing in biological diversity, Proceedings of the OECD International Conference on Incentive Measures for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity. OECD: Cairns.
Young, M. D., Gunningham, N., Elix, J., Lambert, J., Howard, B., Grabowsky, P. and McCrone, E. 1996 Reimbursing the future. DEST Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 9. DEST: Canberra.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal