Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

There has been much discussion about the difference between marine and terrestrial systems and appropriateness of applying terrestrial conservation methods to marine systems. To investigate these issues, 43 criteria were assessed for magnitude of difference and implications for conservation planning. Results suggest that despite distinct differences in the ecology of marine and terrestrial systems, many of the conservation concepts applied in terrestrial systems are relevant and readily transferable to marine systems. Concern that marine systems may be too open and variable to support area-based conservation approaches is quickly abating. This initial misconception was influenced not only by real differences in ecology and scale of the two systems, but also by historic biases in our knowledge and use of these systems. In broad terms, as our understanding of these systems continues to develop, it is increasingly clear that both are subject to a similar suite of conservation issues requiring similar types of responses. In many regards the underlying conservation planning approaches currently applied in these systems are tending to converge towards a ‘landscape’ management approach incorporating on and off-reserve conservation techniques. Increasingly for marine and terrestrial systems, the most important conservation planning objectives include the establishment of secure systems of appropriately located, designed and managed protected areas, and to integrate their application with sustainable management and supplementary conservation management in the off-reserve matrix.

Acosta, C. A. 1999. Benthic dispersal of Caribbean spiny lobsters among insular habitats: Implications for the conservation of exploited marine species. Conservation Biology 13: 603-12.
Acosta, C. A. and Robertson, D. N. 2003. Comparative spatial ecology of fished spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and an unfished congener P. guttatus in an isolated marine reserve at Glover's Reef atoll, Belize. Coral Reefs 22: 1-9.
Airame, S., Dugan, J. E., Lafferty, K. D., Leslie, H., McArdle, D. A. and Warner, R. R. 2003. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: a case study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13: S170-S184.
Allison, G. W., Lubchenco, J. and Carr, M. H. 1998. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8: S79-92.
Angel, M. V. 1997. Pelagic biodiversity. in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process. Pp. 35-68 edited by R. F.G Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
ANZECC/TFMPA 1999. Strategic Plan of Action for the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas: A Guide for Action by Australian Governments. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council - Task Force on Marine Protected Areas. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Banks, S. A. and G. A. Skilleter. 2002. Mapping inter-tidal habitats and an evaluation of their conservation status in Queensland, Australia. Ocean and Coastal Management 45: 485-509.
Barnett, R. 2000. Food for Thought: The Utilization of Wild Meat in Eastern and Southern Africa. IUCN.
Barrett, N. S. 1995. Short and long-term movement patterns of six temperate reef fishes (Families Labridae and Monacanthidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 46: 853-60.
Barrett, N., Sanderson, J. C., Lawler, M., Halley V. and Jordan, A. 2001. Mapping of inshore marine habitats in south-eastern Tasmania for marine protected area planning and marine management. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute Technical Report Series 7: Pp. 73.
Bennett, E. L. 2002. Is there a link between wild meat and food security. Conservation Biology 16: 590-592.
Bojorquez-Tapia, L. A., Brower, L. P., Castilleja, G., Sanchez-Colon, S., Hernandez, M., Calvert, W., Diaz, S., Gomez-Priego, P., Alcantar, G., Melgarejo, E. D., Solares, M. J., Gutierrez, L. and Juarez, M. D. 2003. Mapping expert knowledge redesigning the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. Conservation Biology 17: 367-379.
Botsford, l.W., Micheli, F. and Hastings, A. 2003. Principles for the design of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S25-S31.
Breckwoldt, R. 1983 Wildlife in the Home Paddock: Nature Conservation for Australian Farmers. Angus & Robertson, North-Ryde, Australia.
Butler, A. and Jernakoff, P. 1999 Seagrass in Australia: Strategic Review and Development of an R and D Plan. CSIRO, Collinwood, Victoria.
Cale, P. G. and Hobbs, R. J. 1994. Landscape heterogeneity indices: problems of scale and applicability, with particular reference to animal habitat description. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 183-93.
Carr, M. H., Neigel, J. E., Estes, J. A., Andelman, S., Warner, R. R. and Largier, J. L. 2003. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: implications for design of coastal marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S90-S107.
Chapman, M. G. 1999. Are there adequate data to assess how well theories of rarity apply to marine invertebrates? Biodiversity & Conservation 8: 1295-318.
Cramer, M. J. and Willig, M. R. 2002. Habitat heterogeneity, habitat associations, and rodent species diversity in a sand-shinnery-oak landscape. Journal of Mammalogy 83: 743-53.
Crowder, L.B, Lyman, S. J., Figueira, W. F. and Priddy, J. 2000. Source-sink population dynamics and the problem of siting marine reserves. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 799-820.
Davies, G. 2002. Bushmeat and international development. Conservation Biology 16: 587-89.
Day, J., Fernandes, L., Barnett, B., Slegers, S., Kerrigan, B., Breen, D., De'ath, G., Lewis, A., Innes, J. and Oliver, J. 2003. The representative areas program protecting the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia, 2000.
Denny, M. 1995. Predicting physical disturbance: mechanistic approaches to the study of survivorship on wave-swept shores. Ecological Monographs 65: 371-418.
Downes, B., and Keough, M. 1998. Scaling of colonization processes in streams: parallels and lessons from marine hard substrata. Australian Journal of Ecology 28: 8-26.
Elmgren, R., and Hill, C. 1997. Ecosystem function at low biodiversity - the Baltic example. Pp. 319-336 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Emanuel, B. P., Bustamante, R. H., Branch, G. M., Eekhout, S. and Odendall, F. J. 1992. A zoogeographic and functional approach to the selection of marine reserves on the west coast of South Africa. Benguela Trophic Functioning 12: 341-54.
Engel J. and Kvitek R. 1998. Effects of otter trawling on a benthic community in monterey bay national marine sanctuary. Conservation Biology 12: 1204-14.
FAO. 1994 Review of the State of the World Marine Fishery Resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 335. Pp. 1-136.
Fox, D., Amend, M., Merems, A., Miller, B. and Golden, J. 1998 Coastal Zone Management Section 309 Grant:1998 Nearshore Rocky Reef Assessment: Final Report for 1998 Grant Contact No. 99-020. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Fox, D., Amend, M., Merems, A. and Sullivan, T. 1999 Coastal Zone Management Section 309 Grant:1999 Nearshore Rocky Reef Assessment: Final Report for 1999 Grant Contact No. 99-072. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Franklin, J. F. 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202-5.
Gage, J. D. 1997. High benthic diversity in deep-sea sediments: The importance of hydrodynamics. Pp. 148-77 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F.G Ormond, J. D. Gage and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gage, S. H., Isard, S. A. and Colunga-G., M. 1999. Ecological scaling of aerobiological dispersal processes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97: 249-61.
Gardner, R. H. 1998. Pattern, process and the analysis of spatial scales. Pp. 17-34 in Ecological Scale: Theory and Application, edited by D. L. Peterson and V. T. Parker. Columbia University Press, New York.
Gaston, K. J. 1991. The magnitude of global insect species richness. Conservation Biology 5: 293-96.
GBRMPA. 1999. Protecting Biodiversity: an Overview of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Representative Areas Program. GBRMPA. Townsville, Qld.
Gell F. R. and Roberts, C. M. 2002 The Fishery Effects of Marine Reserves and Fisheries Closures. World Wildlife Fund. Washington, DC.
Gerber, L. R., Botsford, L. W., Hastings, A., Possingham, H. P., Gaines, S. D., Palumbi, S. R. and Andelman, S. 2003. Population models for marine reserve design: a retrospective and prospective synthesis. Ecological Applications 13: S47-S64.
Gillanders, B. M. 1997. Patterns of abundance and size structure in the blue groper Achoerodus viridis (Pisces: Labridae): evidence of links between estuaries and coral reefs. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49: 153-73.
Grassle, J. F. and Maciolek, N. J. 1992. Deep-sea species richness: regional and local diversity estimates from quantitative bottom samples. American Naturalist 139: 313-41.
Gray, J. S. 1997a. Gradients in marine biodiversity. Pp 18-34 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gray, J. S. 1997b. Marine biodiversity: patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 153-75.
Groombridge, B. 1992 Global Biodiversity, Status of the Earth's Living Resources. A Report Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Chapman and Hall, London.
Hall, S. J. 1999. The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems and Communities. Blackwell Science. Oxford, UK.
Halpern, B. S. 2003. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications 13: S117-S137.
Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243-48.
Hardwood, J. 1998. Indirect effects in marine ecosystems. Environmental Conservation 25: 172-74.
Hastings, A. and Botsford, L. W. 2003. Comparing designs of marine reserves for fisheries and for biodiversity. Ecological Applications 13: S65-S70.
Henne, G. 1998. The ecosystem approach under the convention on biological diversity. Environmental Conservation 25: 273-75.
Hiscock, K. 1997. Conserving biodiversity in north-east Atlantic marine ecosystems. Pp.415-27 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Holling, C. S., Schindler, D. W., Walker, B. W. and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Biodiversity in the functioning of ecosystems: an ecological synthesis. Pp. 44-83 in Biodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues, edited by C. Perrings, K. Maler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling and B. Jansson. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
Hooper, J. N. A., Kennedy, J. A. and Quinn, R. J. 2002. Biodiversity ‘hotspots’, patterns of richness and endemism, and taxonomic affinities of tropical Australian sponges (Porifera). Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 851-85.
Hutchings, P. A. 2003. Threatened Species Management: out of its depth for marine invertebrates. Pp 81 - 88 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hyrenbach, K. D., Forney, K. A. and Dayton, P. K. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10: 437-58.
Ichii, T., Mahapatra, K., Watanabe, T., Yatsu, A., Inagake, D. and Okada. Y. 2002. Occurrence of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas aggregations associated with the countercurrent ridge off the Costa Rica Dome during 1997 El Nino and 1999 La Nina. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 231: 151-66.
IUCN 1994 Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.
Jameson, S. C., Tupper, M. H. and Ridley, J. M. 2002. The three screen doors: can marine “protected” areas be effective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 1177-83.
Jones, G. P., Milicich, M. J., Emslie, M. J. and Lunow, C. 1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population. Nature 402: 802-4.
Jordan, A., Lawler, M. and Halley, V. 2001 Estuarine habitat mapping in the Derwent - Integrating science and management. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute NHT Final Report, 67pp.
Kier, G. and Barthlott, W. 2002. Measuring and mapping endemism and species richness: a new methodological approach and its application on the flora of Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1513-29.
Kirkman, H. 1996. Mapping Australia's underwater features. Pp. 17-20 in South Coast Terrestrial and Marine Reserve Integration Study, edited by C. G. Colman. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle, W. A.
Kohn, A. J. 1997. Why are coral reef communities so diverse? Pp. 210-215 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Langton, R. W. and Auster, P. J. 1999. Marine fishery and habitat interactions: to what extent are fisheries and habitat interdependent? Fisheries 24: 14-21.
Lenihan, H. S. 1999. Physical-biological coupling on oyster reefs: How habitat structure influences individual performance. Ecological Monographs 69: 251-75.
Leslie, H., Ruckelshaus, M., Ball, I. R., Andelman, S. and Possingham, H. P. 2003. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications 13: S185-S198.
Lindeman, K. C., Pugliese, R., Waugh, G. T. and Ault, J. S. 2000. Developmental patterns within a multispecies reef fishery: management applications for essential fish habitats and protected areas. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 929-56.
Lombard, A. T., Hilton-Taylor, C., Rebelo, A. G., Pressey, R. L. and Cowling, R. M. 1999. Reserve selection in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa: coping with high compositional turnover. Plant Ecology 142: 35-55.
Lombard, A. T., Cowling, R. M., Pressey, R. L. and Rebelo, A. G. 2003. Effectiveness of land classes as surrogates for species in conservation planning for Cape Floristic Region. Biological Conservation 112: 45-62.
Lu, H., Lee, K., Lin, H. and Liao, C. 2001. Spatio-temporal distribution of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares and bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the Tropical Pacific Ocean in relation to large-scale temperature fluctuation during ENSO episodes. Fisheries Science 67: 1046-52.
Lubchenco, J., Palumbi, S. R., Gaines, S. D. and Andelman, S. 2003. Plugging a hole in the ocean: emerging science of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S3-S7.
Mace, P. M. 1996. Developing and sustaining world fisheries resources: the state of the science and management. Pp. 1-20 in Developing and Sustaining World Fisheries Resources: The State of Science and Management. 2nd World Fisheries Congress Proceedings, edited by D. A. Hancock, D. C. Smith, A. Grant and J. P. Beumer. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Maddock, A. and Du Plessis, M. A. 1999. Can species data only be appropriately used to conserve biodiversity? Biodiversity & Conservation 8: 603-15.
Marine Parks Authority 2001. Developing a Representative System of Marine Protected Areas in NSW - an Overview. NSW Marine Parks Authority. Sydney, NSW.
May, R. M. 1992. Bottoms up for the oceans. Nature 357: 278-79.
McAllister, D. E., Schueler, F. W., Roberts, C. M. and Hawkins, J. P. 1994. Mapping and GIS analysis of the global distribution of coral reef fishes on an equal-area grid. Pp. 155-75 in Mapping the Diversity of Nature, edited by R. I. Millar. Chapman and Hall, London.
Moller, A. P. 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) effects of climate on the relative importance of first and second clutches in a migratory passerine bird. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 201-10.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B. and Kent. J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-58.
Myers, R. A. and Worm, B. 2003 Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423: 280-283.
National Research Council 1999 Sustainable Marine Fisheries. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
National Research Council 2001 Marine Protected Areas. Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
National Research Council 2002 Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Neigel, J. E. 1997. Population genetics and demography of marine species. Pp. 274-92 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F.G Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Norse E. A. and Watling L. 1998. Impacts of mobile fishing gear: The biodiversity perspective. Fish Habitat: Essential Fis Habitat and Rehabilitation 22: 31-40.
Noss, R. F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4: 355-64.
Olson, R. R. 1985. The consequences of short-distance larval dispersal in a sessile marine invertebrate. Ecology 66: 30-39.
Ormond, R. F. G. and Roberts, C. M. 1997. The biodiversity of coral reef fishes. Pp. 216-57 in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D. and Butman, C. A. 1996. Dispersal as a regional process affecting the local dynamics of a marine and stream benthic invertebrate. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 322-26.
Parks, S. A. and Harcourt, A. H. 2002. Reserve size, local human density, and mammalian extinctions in the U. S. protected areas. Conservation Biology 16: 800-808.
Pease, B. C. and Gringerg, A. 1995. New South Wales commercial fisheries statistics 1940 to 1992, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
Peterson, C. H., Summerson, H. C., Thomson, E., Lenihan, H. S., Grabowski, J., Manning, L., Micheli, F. and Johnson, G. 2000. Synthesis of linkages between benthic and fish communities as a key to protecting essential fish habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 759-74.
Phillips, J. A. 2001. Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora? Biodiversity Conservation 10: 1555-77.
Pickrill, P. A. and Todd, B. J. 2003. The multiple roles of acoustic mapping in integrated ocean management, Canadian Atlantic continental margin. Ocean and Coastal Management 46: 601-614.
Pinnegar, J. K., Polunin, N. V. C., Francour, P., Badalamenti, F., Chemello, R., Harmelin-Viven, M. L., Hereu, B., Milazzo, M., Zabala, M., D'Anna, G. and Pipitone, C. 2000. Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected-area management. Environmental Conservation 27: 179-200.
Pollard, D. A. and Hutchings, P. A. 1990a. A review of exotic marine organisms introduced to the Australian region. I. Fishes. Asian Fisheries Science 3: 205-21.
Pollard, D. A. and Hutchings, P. A. 1990b. A review of exotic marine organisms introduced to the Australian region. II. Invertebrates and algae. Asian Fisheries Science 3: 223-50.
Ponder, W. F. 2003. Narrow range endemism in the sea and its implications for conservation. Pp 89-102 in Conserving Marine Environments: out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Pressey, R. L. 1994 Ad hoc reservations: forward or backward steps in developing representative reserve systems? Conservation Biology 8: 662-68.
Pressey, R. L. 1996. Bioregional planning for the conservation of biodiversity - putting theory into practice. Pp. 99-107 in Approaches to Bioregional Planning. Part 1. Proceedings of the Conference, 30 Oct-1 Nov 1995, Melbourne, edited by R. Breckwoldt. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra, ACT.
Pressey, R. L. and Bedward, M. 1991. Mapping the environment at different scales: benefits and costs for nature conservation. Pp. 7-13 in Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis, edited by C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin.
Pressey, R. L. and Ferrier, S. 1995. Types, limitations and uses of geographic data in conservation planning. The Globe (Journal of the Australian Map Circle) 41: 45-52.
Pressey, R. L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T. C., Tully, S. L., Woods, C. A. and Weinman, K. M. 1996. How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales? - analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 311-33.
Pressey, R. L. and Logan, V. S. 1994. Level of geographic subdivision and its effects on assessments of reserve coverage: a review of regional studies. Conservation Biology 8: 1037-46.
Pressey, R. L. and McNeill, S. E. 1996. Some current ideas and applications in the selection of terrestrial protected areas: are there any lessons for the marine environment? Pp. 125-133 in Developing Australia's Representative System of Marine Protected Areas, edited by R. Thackway. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Pressey, R. L., Cowling, R. M. and Rouget, M. 2003. Formulating conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biological Conservation 112: 99-127.
Pullen, J. S. H. 1997. Protecting marine biodiversity and integrated coastal zone management. Pp. 394-414 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Reeb, C. A. and Avise, J. C. 1990. A genetic discontinuity in a continuously distributed species: Mitochondrial DNA in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica.Genetics 124: 397-406.
Reeb, C. A., Arcangeli, L. and Block, B. A. 2000. Structure and migration corridors in Pacific populations of the swordfish Xiphius gladius, as infered through anlyses of mitochondrial DNA. Marine Biology 136: 1123-31.
Roberts, C. M. 1998. Sources, sinks, and the design of marine reserve networks. Fisheries (Bethesda) 23: 16-19.
Roberts, C. M. 1995. Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs. Conservation Biology 9: 988-95.
Roberts, C. M., Andelman, S., Branch, G., Bustamante, R. H., Castilla, J. C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B. S., Lafferty, K. D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Possingham, H. P., Ruckelshaus, M. and Warner, R. P. 2003. Ecologica criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S199-S214.
Rochford, D. J. 1981 Anomalously Warm Sea Surface Temperatures in the Western Tasman Sea, Their Causes and Effects Upon the Southern Blue Fish Tuna Catch, 1966-1977., CSIRO Div. Fish. Oceanogr.
Roff, J. C. and Taylor, M. E. 2000. National frameworks for marine conservation: a hierarchical geophysical approach. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10: 209-23.
Roob, R. 1999. Mapping of Victoria's nearshore marine benthic environment. Pp. 2.1-2.22 in Environmental Inventory of Victoria's Marine Ecosystems Stage 3 (Volume 1), edited by L. W. Ferns and D. Hough. Parks, Flora and Fauna Division, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, East Melbourne, Australia.
Rosenberg, A., Bigford, T. E., Leatery, S., Hill, R. L. and Bickers, K. 2000. Ecosystem approaches to fisheries management through essential habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 535-42.
Rosser, A. M., and Mainka, S. A. 2002. Overexploitation and species extinction. Conservation Biology 16: 584-86.
Schoch, G. C. and Dethier, M. N. 1996. Scaling up: the statistical linkage between organismal abundance and geomorphology on rocky intertidal shorelines. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 201: 37-72.
Shanks, A. L., Grantham, B. A. and Carr, M. H. 2003. Propagule dispersal distance and the size and spacing of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S159-S169.
Shulman, M. J. 1998. What can population genetics tell us about dispersal and biogeographic history of coral-reef fishes? Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 216-25.
Simberloff, D. 1998. Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passe in the landscape era? Biological Conservation 83: 247-57.
Simberloff, D. 2000. No reserve is an island: marine reserves and nonindigenous species. Biological Conservation 66: 567-80.
Spear, L. B., Ballance, L. T. and Ainley, D. G. 2001. Response of seabirds to thermal boundaries in the tropical Pacific: The thermocline versus the Equatorial Front. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 219: 275-89.
Steele, J. H. 1985. A comparison of terrestrial and marine ecological systems. Nature 313: 355-58.
Steffe, A. S., Murphy, J. J., Chapman, D. J., Tarlinton, B. E., Gordon, G. N. G. and Grinberg, A. 1996 An assessment of the impact of offshore recreational fishing in New South Wales waters on the management of commercial fisheries. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.
Stewart, R. R., Noyce, T. and Possingham, H. P. 2003 Opportunity cost of ad hoc marine reserve design decisions: an example from South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253: 25-38.
Swearer, S. E., Caselle, J. E., Lea, D. W. and Warner, R. R. 1999. Larval retention and recruitment in an islands population of a coral-reef fish. Nature 402: 799-802.
Tegner, M. J. 1993. Southern California abalones: can stocks be rebuilt using marine harvest refugia? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 50: 2010-2018.
Tsamenyi, M., Rose, G. and Castle, A. 2003. International marine conservation law and its implementation in Australia. Pp 1 - 17 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Underwood, A. J. 1981. Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 19: 513-605.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 1998a. Spatial analysis of intertidal assemblages on sheltered rocky shores. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 138-57.
Underwood A. J. and Chapman M. G. 1998b. Variation in algal assemblages on wave-exposed rocky shores in New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 241-54.
Underwood, A. J., Kingsford, M. J. and Andrew, N. L. 1991. Patterns in shallow subtidal marine assemblages along the coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 6: 231-49.
Vanderklift, M. A. and Ward, T. J. 2000. Using biological survey data when selecting marine protected areas: an operational framework and associated risks. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 152-61.
Ward, T. J., Vanderklift, M. A., Nicholls, A. O. and Kenchington, R. A. 1999. Selecting marine reserves using habitats and species assemblages as surrogates for biological diversity. Ecological Applications 9: 691-98.
Warner, R. R., Swearer, S. E. and Caselle, J. E. 2000. Larval accumulation and retention: implications for the design of marine reserves and essential fish habitats. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 821-30.
Watling, L. and Norse, E. A. 1998. Disturbance of the seabed by mobile fishing gear: a comparison to forest clearcutting. Conservation Biology 12: 1180-1197.
Wessels, K. J., Freitag, S. and van Jaarsveld, A. S. 1999. The use of land facets as biodiversity surrogates during reserve selection at a local scale. Biological Conservation 89: 21-38.
West, R. J., Thorogood, C. A., Walford, T. R. and Williams, R. J. 1985 An Estuarine Inventory for New South Wales, Australia. Fisheries Bulletin 2. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla, NSW.
Westbrook, J. K., and Isard, S. A. 1999. Atmospheric scales of biotic dispersal. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97: 263-74.
Whitham, T. G., Young, W. P., Martinsen, G. D., Gehring, C. A., Schweitzer, J. A., Shuster, S. M., Wimp, G. M., Fischer, D. G., Bailey, J. K., Lindroth, R. L., Woolbright, S. and Kuske, C. R. 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of extended phenotypes. Ecology 84: 559-73.
Zacharias, M. A., Morris, M. C. and Howes, D. E. 1999. Large scale characterization of intertidal communities using a predictive model. Journal for Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239: 223-42.
Zann, L. P. (ed.) 1996 The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia - Technical Summary. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia.
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Acosta, C. A. 1999. Benthic dispersal of Caribbean spiny lobsters among insular habitats: Implications for the conservation of exploited marine species. Conservation Biology 13: 603-12.
Acosta, C. A. and Robertson, D. N. 2003. Comparative spatial ecology of fished spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and an unfished congener P. guttatus in an isolated marine reserve at Glover's Reef atoll, Belize. Coral Reefs 22: 1-9.
Airame, S., Dugan, J. E., Lafferty, K. D., Leslie, H., McArdle, D. A. and Warner, R. R. 2003. Applying ecological criteria to marine reserve design: a case study from the California Channel Islands. Ecological Applications 13: S170-S184.
Allison, G. W., Lubchenco, J. and Carr, M. H. 1998. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8: S79-92.
Angel, M. V. 1997. Pelagic biodiversity. in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process. Pp. 35-68 edited by R. F.G Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
ANZECC/TFMPA 1999. Strategic Plan of Action for the National Representative System of Marine Protected Areas: A Guide for Action by Australian Governments. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council - Task Force on Marine Protected Areas. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Banks, S. A. and G. A. Skilleter. 2002. Mapping inter-tidal habitats and an evaluation of their conservation status in Queensland, Australia. Ocean and Coastal Management 45: 485-509.
Barnett, R. 2000. Food for Thought: The Utilization of Wild Meat in Eastern and Southern Africa. IUCN.
Barrett, N. S. 1995. Short and long-term movement patterns of six temperate reef fishes (Families Labridae and Monacanthidae). Marine and Freshwater Research 46: 853-60.
Barrett, N., Sanderson, J. C., Lawler, M., Halley V. and Jordan, A. 2001. Mapping of inshore marine habitats in south-eastern Tasmania for marine protected area planning and marine management. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute Technical Report Series 7: Pp. 73.
Bennett, E. L. 2002. Is there a link between wild meat and food security. Conservation Biology 16: 590-592.
Bojorquez-Tapia, L. A., Brower, L. P., Castilleja, G., Sanchez-Colon, S., Hernandez, M., Calvert, W., Diaz, S., Gomez-Priego, P., Alcantar, G., Melgarejo, E. D., Solares, M. J., Gutierrez, L. and Juarez, M. D. 2003. Mapping expert knowledge redesigning the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve. Conservation Biology 17: 367-379.
Botsford, l.W., Micheli, F. and Hastings, A. 2003. Principles for the design of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S25-S31.
Breckwoldt, R. 1983 Wildlife in the Home Paddock: Nature Conservation for Australian Farmers. Angus & Robertson, North-Ryde, Australia.
Butler, A. and Jernakoff, P. 1999 Seagrass in Australia: Strategic Review and Development of an R and D Plan. CSIRO, Collinwood, Victoria.
Cale, P. G. and Hobbs, R. J. 1994. Landscape heterogeneity indices: problems of scale and applicability, with particular reference to animal habitat description. Pacific Conservation Biology 1: 183-93.
Carr, M. H., Neigel, J. E., Estes, J. A., Andelman, S., Warner, R. R. and Largier, J. L. 2003. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: implications for design of coastal marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S90-S107.
Chapman, M. G. 1999. Are there adequate data to assess how well theories of rarity apply to marine invertebrates? Biodiversity & Conservation 8: 1295-318.
Cramer, M. J. and Willig, M. R. 2002. Habitat heterogeneity, habitat associations, and rodent species diversity in a sand-shinnery-oak landscape. Journal of Mammalogy 83: 743-53.
Crowder, L.B, Lyman, S. J., Figueira, W. F. and Priddy, J. 2000. Source-sink population dynamics and the problem of siting marine reserves. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 799-820.
Davies, G. 2002. Bushmeat and international development. Conservation Biology 16: 587-89.
Day, J., Fernandes, L., Barnett, B., Slegers, S., Kerrigan, B., Breen, D., De'ath, G., Lewis, A., Innes, J. and Oliver, J. 2003. The representative areas program protecting the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Proceedings of the Ninth International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia, 2000.
Denny, M. 1995. Predicting physical disturbance: mechanistic approaches to the study of survivorship on wave-swept shores. Ecological Monographs 65: 371-418.
Downes, B., and Keough, M. 1998. Scaling of colonization processes in streams: parallels and lessons from marine hard substrata. Australian Journal of Ecology 28: 8-26.
Elmgren, R., and Hill, C. 1997. Ecosystem function at low biodiversity - the Baltic example. Pp. 319-336 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Emanuel, B. P., Bustamante, R. H., Branch, G. M., Eekhout, S. and Odendall, F. J. 1992. A zoogeographic and functional approach to the selection of marine reserves on the west coast of South Africa. Benguela Trophic Functioning 12: 341-54.
Engel J. and Kvitek R. 1998. Effects of otter trawling on a benthic community in monterey bay national marine sanctuary. Conservation Biology 12: 1204-14.
FAO. 1994 Review of the State of the World Marine Fishery Resources. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 335. Pp. 1-136.
Fox, D., Amend, M., Merems, A., Miller, B. and Golden, J. 1998 Coastal Zone Management Section 309 Grant:1998 Nearshore Rocky Reef Assessment: Final Report for 1998 Grant Contact No. 99-020. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Fox, D., Amend, M., Merems, A. and Sullivan, T. 1999 Coastal Zone Management Section 309 Grant:1999 Nearshore Rocky Reef Assessment: Final Report for 1999 Grant Contact No. 99-072. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.
Franklin, J. F. 1993. Preserving biodiversity: species, ecosystems or landscapes? Ecological Applications 3: 202-5.
Gage, J. D. 1997. High benthic diversity in deep-sea sediments: The importance of hydrodynamics. Pp. 148-77 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F.G Ormond, J. D. Gage and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gage, S. H., Isard, S. A. and Colunga-G., M. 1999. Ecological scaling of aerobiological dispersal processes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97: 249-61.
Gardner, R. H. 1998. Pattern, process and the analysis of spatial scales. Pp. 17-34 in Ecological Scale: Theory and Application, edited by D. L. Peterson and V. T. Parker. Columbia University Press, New York.
Gaston, K. J. 1991. The magnitude of global insect species richness. Conservation Biology 5: 293-96.
GBRMPA. 1999. Protecting Biodiversity: an Overview of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Representative Areas Program. GBRMPA. Townsville, Qld.
Gell F. R. and Roberts, C. M. 2002 The Fishery Effects of Marine Reserves and Fisheries Closures. World Wildlife Fund. Washington, DC.
Gerber, L. R., Botsford, L. W., Hastings, A., Possingham, H. P., Gaines, S. D., Palumbi, S. R. and Andelman, S. 2003. Population models for marine reserve design: a retrospective and prospective synthesis. Ecological Applications 13: S47-S64.
Gillanders, B. M. 1997. Patterns of abundance and size structure in the blue groper Achoerodus viridis (Pisces: Labridae): evidence of links between estuaries and coral reefs. Environmental Biology of Fishes 49: 153-73.
Grassle, J. F. and Maciolek, N. J. 1992. Deep-sea species richness: regional and local diversity estimates from quantitative bottom samples. American Naturalist 139: 313-41.
Gray, J. S. 1997a. Gradients in marine biodiversity. Pp 18-34 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Gray, J. S. 1997b. Marine biodiversity: patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 153-75.
Groombridge, B. 1992 Global Biodiversity, Status of the Earth's Living Resources. A Report Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Chapman and Hall, London.
Hall, S. J. 1999. The Effects of Fishing on Marine Ecosystems and Communities. Blackwell Science. Oxford, UK.
Halpern, B. S. 2003. The impact of marine reserves: do reserves work and does reserve size matter? Ecological Applications 13: S117-S137.
Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243-48.
Hardwood, J. 1998. Indirect effects in marine ecosystems. Environmental Conservation 25: 172-74.
Hastings, A. and Botsford, L. W. 2003. Comparing designs of marine reserves for fisheries and for biodiversity. Ecological Applications 13: S65-S70.
Henne, G. 1998. The ecosystem approach under the convention on biological diversity. Environmental Conservation 25: 273-75.
Hiscock, K. 1997. Conserving biodiversity in north-east Atlantic marine ecosystems. Pp.415-27 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Holling, C. S., Schindler, D. W., Walker, B. W. and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Biodiversity in the functioning of ecosystems: an ecological synthesis. Pp. 44-83 in Biodiversity Loss: Economic and Ecological Issues, edited by C. Perrings, K. Maler, C. Folke, C. S. Holling and B. Jansson. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA.
Hooper, J. N. A., Kennedy, J. A. and Quinn, R. J. 2002. Biodiversity ‘hotspots’, patterns of richness and endemism, and taxonomic affinities of tropical Australian sponges (Porifera). Biodiversity and Conservation 11: 851-85.
Hutchings, P. A. 2003. Threatened Species Management: out of its depth for marine invertebrates. Pp 81 - 88 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hyrenbach, K. D., Forney, K. A. and Dayton, P. K. 2000. Marine protected areas and ocean basin management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10: 437-58.
Ichii, T., Mahapatra, K., Watanabe, T., Yatsu, A., Inagake, D. and Okada. Y. 2002. Occurrence of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas aggregations associated with the countercurrent ridge off the Costa Rica Dome during 1997 El Nino and 1999 La Nina. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 231: 151-66.
IUCN 1994 Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.
Jameson, S. C., Tupper, M. H. and Ridley, J. M. 2002. The three screen doors: can marine “protected” areas be effective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44: 1177-83.
Jones, G. P., Milicich, M. J., Emslie, M. J. and Lunow, C. 1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population. Nature 402: 802-4.
Jordan, A., Lawler, M. and Halley, V. 2001 Estuarine habitat mapping in the Derwent - Integrating science and management. Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute NHT Final Report, 67pp.
Kier, G. and Barthlott, W. 2002. Measuring and mapping endemism and species richness: a new methodological approach and its application on the flora of Africa. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1513-29.
Kirkman, H. 1996. Mapping Australia's underwater features. Pp. 17-20 in South Coast Terrestrial and Marine Reserve Integration Study, edited by C. G. Colman. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Fremantle, W. A.
Kohn, A. J. 1997. Why are coral reef communities so diverse? Pp. 210-215 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Langton, R. W. and Auster, P. J. 1999. Marine fishery and habitat interactions: to what extent are fisheries and habitat interdependent? Fisheries 24: 14-21.
Lenihan, H. S. 1999. Physical-biological coupling on oyster reefs: How habitat structure influences individual performance. Ecological Monographs 69: 251-75.
Leslie, H., Ruckelshaus, M., Ball, I. R., Andelman, S. and Possingham, H. P. 2003. Using siting algorithms in the design of marine reserve networks. Ecological Applications 13: S185-S198.
Lindeman, K. C., Pugliese, R., Waugh, G. T. and Ault, J. S. 2000. Developmental patterns within a multispecies reef fishery: management applications for essential fish habitats and protected areas. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 929-56.
Lombard, A. T., Hilton-Taylor, C., Rebelo, A. G., Pressey, R. L. and Cowling, R. M. 1999. Reserve selection in the Succulent Karoo, South Africa: coping with high compositional turnover. Plant Ecology 142: 35-55.
Lombard, A. T., Cowling, R. M., Pressey, R. L. and Rebelo, A. G. 2003. Effectiveness of land classes as surrogates for species in conservation planning for Cape Floristic Region. Biological Conservation 112: 45-62.
Lu, H., Lee, K., Lin, H. and Liao, C. 2001. Spatio-temporal distribution of yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares and bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus in the Tropical Pacific Ocean in relation to large-scale temperature fluctuation during ENSO episodes. Fisheries Science 67: 1046-52.
Lubchenco, J., Palumbi, S. R., Gaines, S. D. and Andelman, S. 2003. Plugging a hole in the ocean: emerging science of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S3-S7.
Mace, P. M. 1996. Developing and sustaining world fisheries resources: the state of the science and management. Pp. 1-20 in Developing and Sustaining World Fisheries Resources: The State of Science and Management. 2nd World Fisheries Congress Proceedings, edited by D. A. Hancock, D. C. Smith, A. Grant and J. P. Beumer. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria.
Maddock, A. and Du Plessis, M. A. 1999. Can species data only be appropriately used to conserve biodiversity? Biodiversity & Conservation 8: 603-15.
Marine Parks Authority 2001. Developing a Representative System of Marine Protected Areas in NSW - an Overview. NSW Marine Parks Authority. Sydney, NSW.
May, R. M. 1992. Bottoms up for the oceans. Nature 357: 278-79.
McAllister, D. E., Schueler, F. W., Roberts, C. M. and Hawkins, J. P. 1994. Mapping and GIS analysis of the global distribution of coral reef fishes on an equal-area grid. Pp. 155-75 in Mapping the Diversity of Nature, edited by R. I. Millar. Chapman and Hall, London.
Moller, A. P. 2003. North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) effects of climate on the relative importance of first and second clutches in a migratory passerine bird. Journal of Animal Ecology 71: 201-10.
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., da Fonseca, G. A. B. and Kent. J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-58.
Myers, R. A. and Worm, B. 2003 Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423: 280-283.
National Research Council 1999 Sustainable Marine Fisheries. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
National Research Council 2001 Marine Protected Areas. Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. National Academy Press. Washington, DC.
National Research Council 2002 Effects of Trawling and Dredging on Seafloor Habitat. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Neigel, J. E. 1997. Population genetics and demography of marine species. Pp. 274-92 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F.G Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Norse E. A. and Watling L. 1998. Impacts of mobile fishing gear: The biodiversity perspective. Fish Habitat: Essential Fis Habitat and Rehabilitation 22: 31-40.
Noss, R. F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchical approach. Conservation Biology 4: 355-64.
Olson, R. R. 1985. The consequences of short-distance larval dispersal in a sessile marine invertebrate. Ecology 66: 30-39.
Ormond, R. F. G. and Roberts, C. M. 1997. The biodiversity of coral reef fishes. Pp. 216-57 in Marine Biodiversity: Patterns and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D. and Butman, C. A. 1996. Dispersal as a regional process affecting the local dynamics of a marine and stream benthic invertebrate. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 322-26.
Parks, S. A. and Harcourt, A. H. 2002. Reserve size, local human density, and mammalian extinctions in the U. S. protected areas. Conservation Biology 16: 800-808.
Pease, B. C. and Gringerg, A. 1995. New South Wales commercial fisheries statistics 1940 to 1992, NSW Fisheries, Cronulla.
Peterson, C. H., Summerson, H. C., Thomson, E., Lenihan, H. S., Grabowski, J., Manning, L., Micheli, F. and Johnson, G. 2000. Synthesis of linkages between benthic and fish communities as a key to protecting essential fish habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 759-74.
Phillips, J. A. 2001. Marine macroalgal biodiversity hotspots: why is there high species richness and endemism in southern Australian marine benthic flora? Biodiversity Conservation 10: 1555-77.
Pickrill, P. A. and Todd, B. J. 2003. The multiple roles of acoustic mapping in integrated ocean management, Canadian Atlantic continental margin. Ocean and Coastal Management 46: 601-614.
Pinnegar, J. K., Polunin, N. V. C., Francour, P., Badalamenti, F., Chemello, R., Harmelin-Viven, M. L., Hereu, B., Milazzo, M., Zabala, M., D'Anna, G. and Pipitone, C. 2000. Trophic cascades in benthic marine ecosystems: lessons for fisheries and protected-area management. Environmental Conservation 27: 179-200.
Pollard, D. A. and Hutchings, P. A. 1990a. A review of exotic marine organisms introduced to the Australian region. I. Fishes. Asian Fisheries Science 3: 205-21.
Pollard, D. A. and Hutchings, P. A. 1990b. A review of exotic marine organisms introduced to the Australian region. II. Invertebrates and algae. Asian Fisheries Science 3: 223-50.
Ponder, W. F. 2003. Narrow range endemism in the sea and its implications for conservation. Pp 89-102 in Conserving Marine Environments: out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Pressey, R. L. 1994 Ad hoc reservations: forward or backward steps in developing representative reserve systems? Conservation Biology 8: 662-68.
Pressey, R. L. 1996. Bioregional planning for the conservation of biodiversity - putting theory into practice. Pp. 99-107 in Approaches to Bioregional Planning. Part 1. Proceedings of the Conference, 30 Oct-1 Nov 1995, Melbourne, edited by R. Breckwoldt. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra, ACT.
Pressey, R. L. and Bedward, M. 1991. Mapping the environment at different scales: benefits and costs for nature conservation. Pp. 7-13 in Nature Conservation: Cost Effective Biological Surveys and Data Analysis, edited by C. R. Margules and M. P. Austin.
Pressey, R. L. and Ferrier, S. 1995. Types, limitations and uses of geographic data in conservation planning. The Globe (Journal of the Australian Map Circle) 41: 45-52.
Pressey, R. L., Ferrier, S., Hager, T. C., Tully, S. L., Woods, C. A. and Weinman, K. M. 1996. How well protected are the forests of north-eastern New South Wales? - analyses of forest environments in relation to formal protection measures, land tenure and vulnerability to clearing. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 311-33.
Pressey, R. L. and Logan, V. S. 1994. Level of geographic subdivision and its effects on assessments of reserve coverage: a review of regional studies. Conservation Biology 8: 1037-46.
Pressey, R. L. and McNeill, S. E. 1996. Some current ideas and applications in the selection of terrestrial protected areas: are there any lessons for the marine environment? Pp. 125-133 in Developing Australia's Representative System of Marine Protected Areas, edited by R. Thackway. Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra.
Pressey, R. L., Cowling, R. M. and Rouget, M. 2003. Formulating conservation targets for biodiversity pattern and process in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. Biological Conservation 112: 99-127.
Pullen, J. S. H. 1997. Protecting marine biodiversity and integrated coastal zone management. Pp. 394-414 in Marine Biodiversity: Pattern and Process, edited by R. F. G. Ormond, J. D. Gage, and M. V. Angel. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Reeb, C. A. and Avise, J. C. 1990. A genetic discontinuity in a continuously distributed species: Mitochondrial DNA in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica.Genetics 124: 397-406.
Reeb, C. A., Arcangeli, L. and Block, B. A. 2000. Structure and migration corridors in Pacific populations of the swordfish Xiphius gladius, as infered through anlyses of mitochondrial DNA. Marine Biology 136: 1123-31.
Roberts, C. M. 1998. Sources, sinks, and the design of marine reserve networks. Fisheries (Bethesda) 23: 16-19.
Roberts, C. M. 1995. Effects of fishing on the ecosystem structure of coral reefs. Conservation Biology 9: 988-95.
Roberts, C. M., Andelman, S., Branch, G., Bustamante, R. H., Castilla, J. C., Dugan, J., Halpern, B. S., Lafferty, K. D., Leslie, H., Lubchenco, J., McArdle, D., Possingham, H. P., Ruckelshaus, M. and Warner, R. P. 2003. Ecologica criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S199-S214.
Rochford, D. J. 1981 Anomalously Warm Sea Surface Temperatures in the Western Tasman Sea, Their Causes and Effects Upon the Southern Blue Fish Tuna Catch, 1966-1977., CSIRO Div. Fish. Oceanogr.
Roff, J. C. and Taylor, M. E. 2000. National frameworks for marine conservation: a hierarchical geophysical approach. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10: 209-23.
Roob, R. 1999. Mapping of Victoria's nearshore marine benthic environment. Pp. 2.1-2.22 in Environmental Inventory of Victoria's Marine Ecosystems Stage 3 (Volume 1), edited by L. W. Ferns and D. Hough. Parks, Flora and Fauna Division, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, East Melbourne, Australia.
Rosenberg, A., Bigford, T. E., Leatery, S., Hill, R. L. and Bickers, K. 2000. Ecosystem approaches to fisheries management through essential habitat. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 535-42.
Rosser, A. M., and Mainka, S. A. 2002. Overexploitation and species extinction. Conservation Biology 16: 584-86.
Schoch, G. C. and Dethier, M. N. 1996. Scaling up: the statistical linkage between organismal abundance and geomorphology on rocky intertidal shorelines. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 201: 37-72.
Shanks, A. L., Grantham, B. A. and Carr, M. H. 2003. Propagule dispersal distance and the size and spacing of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S159-S169.
Shulman, M. J. 1998. What can population genetics tell us about dispersal and biogeographic history of coral-reef fishes? Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 216-25.
Simberloff, D. 1998. Flagships, umbrellas, and keystones: is single-species management passe in the landscape era? Biological Conservation 83: 247-57.
Simberloff, D. 2000. No reserve is an island: marine reserves and nonindigenous species. Biological Conservation 66: 567-80.
Spear, L. B., Ballance, L. T. and Ainley, D. G. 2001. Response of seabirds to thermal boundaries in the tropical Pacific: The thermocline versus the Equatorial Front. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 219: 275-89.
Steele, J. H. 1985. A comparison of terrestrial and marine ecological systems. Nature 313: 355-58.
Steffe, A. S., Murphy, J. J., Chapman, D. J., Tarlinton, B. E., Gordon, G. N. G. and Grinberg, A. 1996 An assessment of the impact of offshore recreational fishing in New South Wales waters on the management of commercial fisheries. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla.
Stewart, R. R., Noyce, T. and Possingham, H. P. 2003 Opportunity cost of ad hoc marine reserve design decisions: an example from South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 253: 25-38.
Swearer, S. E., Caselle, J. E., Lea, D. W. and Warner, R. R. 1999. Larval retention and recruitment in an islands population of a coral-reef fish. Nature 402: 799-802.
Tegner, M. J. 1993. Southern California abalones: can stocks be rebuilt using marine harvest refugia? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 50: 2010-2018.
Tsamenyi, M., Rose, G. and Castle, A. 2003. International marine conservation law and its implementation in Australia. Pp 1 - 17 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Underwood, A. J. 1981. Techniques of analysis of variance in experimental marine biology and ecology. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 19: 513-605.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, M. G. 1998a. Spatial analysis of intertidal assemblages on sheltered rocky shores. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 138-57.
Underwood A. J. and Chapman M. G. 1998b. Variation in algal assemblages on wave-exposed rocky shores in New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 241-54.
Underwood, A. J., Kingsford, M. J. and Andrew, N. L. 1991. Patterns in shallow subtidal marine assemblages along the coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 6: 231-49.
Vanderklift, M. A. and Ward, T. J. 2000. Using biological survey data when selecting marine protected areas: an operational framework and associated risks. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 152-61.
Ward, T. J., Vanderklift, M. A., Nicholls, A. O. and Kenchington, R. A. 1999. Selecting marine reserves using habitats and species assemblages as surrogates for biological diversity. Ecological Applications 9: 691-98.
Warner, R. R., Swearer, S. E. and Caselle, J. E. 2000. Larval accumulation and retention: implications for the design of marine reserves and essential fish habitats. Bulletin of Marine Science 66: 821-30.
Watling, L. and Norse, E. A. 1998. Disturbance of the seabed by mobile fishing gear: a comparison to forest clearcutting. Conservation Biology 12: 1180-1197.
Wessels, K. J., Freitag, S. and van Jaarsveld, A. S. 1999. The use of land facets as biodiversity surrogates during reserve selection at a local scale. Biological Conservation 89: 21-38.
West, R. J., Thorogood, C. A., Walford, T. R. and Williams, R. J. 1985 An Estuarine Inventory for New South Wales, Australia. Fisheries Bulletin 2. NSW Fisheries Research Institute, Cronulla, NSW.
Westbrook, J. K., and Isard, S. A. 1999. Atmospheric scales of biotic dispersal. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97: 263-74.
Whitham, T. G., Young, W. P., Martinsen, G. D., Gehring, C. A., Schweitzer, J. A., Shuster, S. M., Wimp, G. M., Fischer, D. G., Bailey, J. K., Lindroth, R. L., Woolbright, S. and Kuske, C. R. 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of extended phenotypes. Ecology 84: 559-73.
Zacharias, M. A., Morris, M. C. and Howes, D. E. 1999. Large scale characterization of intertidal communities using a predictive model. Journal for Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239: 223-42.
Zann, L. P. (ed.) 1996 The State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia - Technical Summary. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia.
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal