Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination

The capacity of human activities to have significant impact on marine environments was not regarded as a serious issue until the middle of the 20th century. It is now regarded as a matter of increasing urgency but the evolution of appropriate management measures presents several challenges. This paper discusses the nature and scale of marine ecosystems, their linkage through the water column and how these raise management requirements that are not easily addressed through terrestrial concepts of jurisdictional boundaries and individual rights of access or ownership. It concludes by presenting the case for a marine implementation of multiple use management characterised by a core component of highly protected reference or sanctuary sites within a larger ecosystem-scale area managed for verifiably sustainable use and providing effective buffering for highly protected coresites.

Agardy, T. 1997. Marine Management Areas. Pp 153-156 In Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. National Research Council National Academy Press, Washington DC.
Agardy, T. 1999. Ecosystem-based management: A marine perspective. Pp 44-46 in: E. Maltby, M. Holdgate, M. Acreman and J. Weir [eds.] Ecosystem Management -Questions for Science and Society. RHIER, University of London, Egham, UK:
Batisse, M. 1982. The Biosphere Reserve: a Tool for Environmental Conservation and Management. Environmental Conservation 9(2): 101-111.
Benchley, P. 1974 Jaws. Edition sighted 2000 Longman New York USA
Bridgewater, P. 1999. MAB Biosphere Reserves and the Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity. Pp 9 - 14 in Oslányi, J. (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on the Relationship between the Convention on Biological Diversity and Biosphere Reserves. Bratislava.
Brown, I. 2002. Oldest MPA in the world: Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Designated 1879. MPA News, 3(6):5.
Cesar, H. S. J. ed 2000 Collected Essays on the Economics of Coral Reefs. CORDIO, Kalmar, Sweden. 244pp.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1998 Australia's Ocean Policy. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra ACT 48pp.
Crosby, M. P., Bohne, R. and Geenen, K. 2000 Alternative access management strategies for marine and coastal protected areas: A reference manual for their development and assessment. U. S. Man and the Biosphere Program. Washington, DC. 164 pp.
Cushing, D. H. 1988 The Provident Sea. Cambridge University Press Cambridge UK 329pp
Eichbaum M. P., Crosby, M. T., Agardy, T. and Laskin, S. A. 1996. The Role of Marine and Coastal Protected Areas in the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity. Oceanography 9(1):60-70.
Garcia, S. M. and Newton, C. 1997. Current Situation, Trends and Prospects in World Capture Fisheries. Pp 16-19.in American Fisheries Society, Bethesda Maryland USA.
Grove, R. H. 1995 Green Imperialism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 540pp
Gunn, C. A. 1994 Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases. Taylor and Francis, New York, USA 460pp.
Halsbury's Laws of England, 1954 Vol.1. Admiralty. Butterworth, London 208pp.
Hemingway, E. 1952 The Old Man and the Sea. Edition sighted 1999 Scribner, New York USA.
Hislop, V. 2002 Vic Hislop's Great White Shark Exhibition at Hervey Bay in Queensland (http://www.ozmagic3.homestead.com/VicHislopSharkExpo.html)
IUCN, 1994 Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN Cambridge, UK and Gland Switzerland.
Johannes, R. E. 1981 Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and MarineLore in the Palau district of Micronesia. University of California Press, Berkely and Los Angeles. 245pp.
Kelleher, G. 1999 Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK xxiv + 107pp.
Kelleher G., Bleakley, C. and Wells. S. 1995 A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, The World Bank, IUCN. Washington, DC 4 volumes.
Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. A. 1992 Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas: a Marine Conservation and Development Report,. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. vii + 79 pp.
Kenchington, R. A. 1990 Managing Marine Environments, Taylor and Francis, New York and London. iv +248 pp. illus.
Kenchington, R. A. 1993. Tourism in coastal and marine environments: a recreational perspective, Ocean and Coastal Management, 19: 1-16.
Kenchington R. A. and Agardy, T. 1990, Achieving marine conservation through biosphere reserve management and planning. Environmental Conservation 17(1): 39-44.
Kurlansky, M. 1999 Cod. Vintage Press, London, U K 294 pp.
Lawrence, D.R, Kenchington, R. A. and Woodley, S. J. 2002 The Great Barrier Reef: Finding the Right Balance. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne. 263pp.
McKinnon, K. R. 1989 Oceans of Wealth. Report by the Review Committee on Marine Industries, Science and Technology. Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra.
Melville, H. 1851 Moby Dick, edition sighted 1997 Oxford Classics, Oxford UK
National Research Council. 2001 Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Committee on the Evaluation, Design and monitoring of marine reserves and protected areas in the United States, Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC. USA 288 pp.
Open University. 1989 Seawater: Its Composition, Properties, and Behavior: Pergamon Press. 165pp.
Pressey, R. L. and McNeill, S. E. 1996. Some Current Ideas and Applications in the Selection of Terrestrial Protected Areas: Are There Any Lessons for the Marine Environment? In: Proceedings of the Technical Meeting to Develop Consistent National Selection Criteria for a Representative System of Marine Protected areas, Adelaide, April 1996.
Resource Assessment Commission. 1993 Coastal Zone Inquiry Final Report. Resource Assessment Commission, Canberra ACT.
Silva, M. E., Gately, E.M, Desilvestre, I. 1986. A Bibliographic Listing of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas: A Global Survey. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA USA Report WHOI-86-11. 156pp.
World Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002 Plan of Implementation. Available at http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/documents/summit_docs/2309_planfinal.doc
This content is PDF only. Please click on the PDF icon to access.

Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Agardy, T. 1997. Marine Management Areas. Pp 153-156 In Striking a Balance: Improving Stewardship of Marine Areas. National Research Council National Academy Press, Washington DC.
Agardy, T. 1999. Ecosystem-based management: A marine perspective. Pp 44-46 in: E. Maltby, M. Holdgate, M. Acreman and J. Weir [eds.] Ecosystem Management -Questions for Science and Society. RHIER, University of London, Egham, UK:
Batisse, M. 1982. The Biosphere Reserve: a Tool for Environmental Conservation and Management. Environmental Conservation 9(2): 101-111.
Benchley, P. 1974 Jaws. Edition sighted 2000 Longman New York USA
Bridgewater, P. 1999. MAB Biosphere Reserves and the Jakarta Mandate on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity. Pp 9 - 14 in Oslányi, J. (ed.) Proceedings of the Conference on the Relationship between the Convention on Biological Diversity and Biosphere Reserves. Bratislava.
Brown, I. 2002. Oldest MPA in the world: Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Designated 1879. MPA News, 3(6):5.
Cesar, H. S. J. ed 2000 Collected Essays on the Economics of Coral Reefs. CORDIO, Kalmar, Sweden. 244pp.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1998 Australia's Ocean Policy. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra ACT 48pp.
Crosby, M. P., Bohne, R. and Geenen, K. 2000 Alternative access management strategies for marine and coastal protected areas: A reference manual for their development and assessment. U. S. Man and the Biosphere Program. Washington, DC. 164 pp.
Cushing, D. H. 1988 The Provident Sea. Cambridge University Press Cambridge UK 329pp
Eichbaum M. P., Crosby, M. T., Agardy, T. and Laskin, S. A. 1996. The Role of Marine and Coastal Protected Areas in the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biological Diversity. Oceanography 9(1):60-70.
Garcia, S. M. and Newton, C. 1997. Current Situation, Trends and Prospects in World Capture Fisheries. Pp 16-19.in American Fisheries Society, Bethesda Maryland USA.
Grove, R. H. 1995 Green Imperialism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK 540pp
Gunn, C. A. 1994 Tourism Planning: Basics, Concepts, Cases. Taylor and Francis, New York, USA 460pp.
Halsbury's Laws of England, 1954 Vol.1. Admiralty. Butterworth, London 208pp.
Hemingway, E. 1952 The Old Man and the Sea. Edition sighted 1999 Scribner, New York USA.
Hislop, V. 2002 Vic Hislop's Great White Shark Exhibition at Hervey Bay in Queensland (http://www.ozmagic3.homestead.com/VicHislopSharkExpo.html)
IUCN, 1994 Guidelines for Protected Area Management Categories. IUCN Cambridge, UK and Gland Switzerland.
Johannes, R. E. 1981 Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and MarineLore in the Palau district of Micronesia. University of California Press, Berkely and Los Angeles. 245pp.
Kelleher, G. 1999 Guidelines for Marine Protected Areas. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge UK xxiv + 107pp.
Kelleher G., Bleakley, C. and Wells. S. 1995 A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, The World Bank, IUCN. Washington, DC 4 volumes.
Kelleher, G. and Kenchington, R. A. 1992 Guidelines for Establishing Marine Protected Areas: a Marine Conservation and Development Report,. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. vii + 79 pp.
Kenchington, R. A. 1990 Managing Marine Environments, Taylor and Francis, New York and London. iv +248 pp. illus.
Kenchington, R. A. 1993. Tourism in coastal and marine environments: a recreational perspective, Ocean and Coastal Management, 19: 1-16.
Kenchington R. A. and Agardy, T. 1990, Achieving marine conservation through biosphere reserve management and planning. Environmental Conservation 17(1): 39-44.
Kurlansky, M. 1999 Cod. Vintage Press, London, U K 294 pp.
Lawrence, D.R, Kenchington, R. A. and Woodley, S. J. 2002 The Great Barrier Reef: Finding the Right Balance. Melbourne University Press. Melbourne. 263pp.
McKinnon, K. R. 1989 Oceans of Wealth. Report by the Review Committee on Marine Industries, Science and Technology. Australian Government Publishing Service. Canberra.
Melville, H. 1851 Moby Dick, edition sighted 1997 Oxford Classics, Oxford UK
National Research Council. 2001 Marine Protected Areas: Tools for Sustaining Ocean Ecosystems. Committee on the Evaluation, Design and monitoring of marine reserves and protected areas in the United States, Ocean Studies Board, National Research Council, Washington, DC. USA 288 pp.
Open University. 1989 Seawater: Its Composition, Properties, and Behavior: Pergamon Press. 165pp.
Pressey, R. L. and McNeill, S. E. 1996. Some Current Ideas and Applications in the Selection of Terrestrial Protected Areas: Are There Any Lessons for the Marine Environment? In: Proceedings of the Technical Meeting to Develop Consistent National Selection Criteria for a Representative System of Marine Protected areas, Adelaide, April 1996.
Resource Assessment Commission. 1993 Coastal Zone Inquiry Final Report. Resource Assessment Commission, Canberra ACT.
Silva, M. E., Gately, E.M, Desilvestre, I. 1986. A Bibliographic Listing of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas: A Global Survey. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA USA Report WHOI-86-11. 156pp.
World Summit on Sustainable Development. 2002 Plan of Implementation. Available at http://www.johannesburgsummit.org/html/documents/summit_docs/2309_planfinal.doc
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal