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The commercial whale watching industry has experienced a rapid expansion in Australia in recent years, often outpacing regulatory development. While whale watching has the potential to provide a number of benefits to the community, industry and animals, these benefits come at the risk of over-exploiting the animals and their environment. A management regime can be used to regulate the industry through legislation, a permitting system with associated conditions or voluntary guidelines. Such management relies on a well-developed understanding of the animals, the industry and potential and real impacts so that any regulatory measures are effective. There is a need for sound scientific research incorporating short-term tests and long-term monitoring of the whale watching industry, participants and target species to inform and support management decisions. Research should focus on the behavioural ecology and population biology of the animals, the extent of the industry and the expectations and satisfaction of the participants. This information can then be used to develop a long-term management system that will detect trends and impacts and will be responsive to necessary changes.

Allen, S. J. and Harcourt, R. G. 2001. Big brother is watching from under-water, above-water and on-land: assessing the behaviour of tour vessels around bottlenose dolphins. Abstract in the Proceedings of the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology Marine Mammals. Society for Marine Mammalogy. Vancouver.
Allen, M. C. and Read, A. J. 2000. Habitat selection of foraging bottlenose dolphins in relation to boat density near Clearwater, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 16: 815-824.
Anderson, G. R. V., Forbes, M. A. and Pirzl, R. M. 1996. A national overview of the development of whale watching in Australia. p 5-16 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser, A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
ANZECC. 2000 Australian national guidelines for cetacean observation and areas of special interest for cetacean observation. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council., Canberra, ACT.
ANZECC. 1998 Humpback Whale Research and Conservation Seminar. Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane, Qld.
Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. 1989 Behavioral responses of summering humpback whales to vessel traffic: experimental and opportunistic observations. Final report to the United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Anchorage Alaska. Technical report NPS-NR-TRS-89-01.
Bannister, J. L. 1985. Southern right ( Eubalaena australis) and humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) whales off Western Australia: some recent aerial survey work. Pages 105-113 in Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes, edited by J. K. King and M. M. Bryden. South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA.
Bannister, J.L 1986. Southern right whales status off Australia from twentieth century ‘incidental’ sighting and aerial survey. Report to the International Whaling Commission. Special issue 10: 153-157.
Bannister, J. L. 2001. Status of southern right whales ( Eubalaena australis) off southern Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue 2).
Bannister, J. L., Kemper, C. M. and Warneke, R. M. 1996 The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra
Bannister, J. L. and Hedley, S. H. 2001. Southern hemisphere Group IV humpback whales: Their status from recent aerial survey. Memoirs Of The Queensland Museum 47(2):587-598.
Beaumont, N. 2001. Ecotourism and the conservation ethic: recruiting the uninitiated or preaching to the converted? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9:317-341.
Bejder, L., Dawson, S. M. and Harraway, J. A. 1999. Response by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 15: 738-750.
Birtles, R. A., Arnold, P. W. and Dunstan, A. 2002. Commercial swim programs with dwarf minke whales on the Northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: some characteristics of the encounters with management implications. Australian Mammalogy 24: 23-38.
Brix, K. and Nitta, E. T. 2001. Whale watching and humpback whale protection in Hawaii and Alaska. Pages 50-51 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Burnell, S. R. and McCulloch, R. E. 2003 Draft Recovery Plan for the Southern Right Whale in Australian Waters. Unpublished report. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Burnell, S. R., 1999. The population biology of southern right whales in southern Australian waters. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Sydney. Sydney, Australia; 227pp.
Chaloupka, M. and Osmond, M. 1999. Spatial and seasonal distribution of humpback whales in the Great Barrier Reef Region. American Fisheries Society Symposium 23:89-106.
Chilvers, B. L. 2000. The apparent dependence of some bottlenose dolphins on trawler discard within Morton Bay, SE. Queensland. Abstract in the Proceedings from the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammal Conference. Phillip Island, Vic.
CMC and NMFS. 1988 Proceedings of the Workshop to Review and Evaluate Whale Watching Programs and Management Needs. Sponsored by the Center for Marine Conservation and National Marine Fisheries Service. November 14-16, 1988, Monterey, California. 53pp.
Coleman, G. and Hunter, I. 2002. Proposed regulation of the commercial marine mammal observation tour industry. NSW Government Discussion Paper. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Connor, R. C. and Smolker, R. S. 1985. Habituated dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Western Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 66:398-400.
Connor, R. C., Heithaus, M. R. and Barre, L. M. 2001. Complex social structure, alliance stability and mating access in a bottlenose dolphin ‘super-alliance’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 268:263-267.
Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins due to long-term exposure to swim-with-dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17:689-702.
Corbelli, C. 2001. An evaluation of the impact of whale watching vessels on humpback whales in Newfoundland, Canada and an evaluation of voluntary codes of conduct to minimize impact and ensure passenger benefits. p 83-85 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Corkeron, P. 1990. Aspects of the behavioural ecology of the inshore dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Sousa chinensis in Moreton Bay, Australia. Pages 285-293 in The Bottlenose Dolphin, edited by S. Leatherwood and R. Reeves. Academic Press Inc, San Diego, California.
Corkeron, P. J. 1995. Humpback whales in Hervey Bay, Qld: behavior and responses to whale -watching vessels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1290-1299.
Corkeron, P. J. 1996. Research priorities for whale watching in Australia: a scientist's viewpoint. p 133-136 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery). Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Coughran, D. and Crawford, S. 1996. Marine mammal interaction: an overview of the whale watching industry in Western Australia 1989-1994. p 161-166 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Dunn, W. and Goldsworthy, A. 2000. Behavioural responses of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) to dolphin swim tour vessels in southern Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Poster Presentation Australian Marine Science Association Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Erbe, C. 2000. Underwater noise of whale watching boats and its effects on marine mammals. International Whaling Commission. SC/2/WW11.
Findlay, K. 2001. Can we watch whales and not disturb them? Abstract in the Proceedings from the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammal Conference. Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia.
Frohoff, T. G., Herzig, D. L. and Santos, M. 1995. Report from the workshop Human-interactions with small cetaceans: research and management. Convened at the 11th Biennial conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, December 1995, Orlando FL.
Goldsworthy, A. and Dunn, W. 2000. Residency status of a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in southern Port Phillip Bay, Victoria 1997-1999. Poster Presentation. Australian Marine Science Association Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Green, R. and Higginbotham, K. 2001. The Negative Effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 1. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
Grossek, G. 1998. Regulatory Impact Statement: Wildlife (Whales) Regulations 1998. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne, Victoria.
Higginbotham, K. Northrope, C. L. and Green, R. J. 2001. Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife habitats. Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 6. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Hoyt, E. 1996. Whale watching: a global overview of the industry's rapid growth and some implications and suggestions fro Australia. p 31-36 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Hoyt, E. 2001. Whale watching 2001: Worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding socioeconomic benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port, MA USA. 158pp.
IFAW, Tethys Research Institute and Europe Conservation. 1995 Report of the workshop on scientific aspects of managing whale watching. Sponsored by International Fund for Animal Welfare and Tethys Research Institute and Europe Conservation Montecastello di Bivio, Italy. IFAW, Crowborough, UK. 40 pp.
International Whaling Commission. 1994 Forty-fourth report of the International Whaling Commission. Cambridge: IWC.
Janik, B. M. and Thompson, P. M. 1996. Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic. Marine Mammal Science 12: 597-602.
Kaufman, G. D., Lagerquist, B. A., Forestell, P. H. and Osmond M. G. 1993 Humpback whales of Australia: A catalogue of individual whales identified by fluke photographs. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. Brisbane.
Kemper, C. M., Mole, J., Warneke, R. M., Ling, J. K., Needham, D. J. and Wapstra, J. E. 1997. Southern Right Whales in southeastern Australia - aerial surveys during 1991-93 and incidental information from 1904. p 40-55 in Marine Mammal Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine, edited by M. Hindell and C. Kemper. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, Melbourne, Australia.
Kruse, S. 1991. Interactions between killer whales and boats in Johnstone Strait, BC. p 149-159 in Dolphin Societies: Discoveries and Puzzles, edited by K. S. Norris and K. Pryor. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Lalime-Bauer, J. 2000. Operator compliance to Australian whale watching regulations and guidelines. International Whaling Commission. SC/52/WW4.
Lear, R. J. and Bryden, M. M. 1980. A study of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in eastern Australian waters. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 4. 23pp.
Malcolm, C. and Duffus, D. 1998 Whale-watching workshop report summary. World Marine Mammal Science Conference. Monaco, January 19-26.
Mandelc, F. 1997
Mann J., Connor, R. C., Barre, L. M. and Heithaus, M. R. 2000. Female reproductive success in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp): Life history, habitat, provisioning and group size effects. Behavioural Ecology 11:210-219.
Moller, L. M., Allen, S. J. and Harcourt, R. G. 2002. Group characteristics, site fidelity and seasonal abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus in Jervis Bay and Port Stephens, south eastern Australia. Australian Mammalogy 24:11-21.
Moller, L. M. and Harcourt, R. G. 1998. Social dynamics and activity patterns of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Jervis Bay, Southeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW. 120: 181-189.
Moscardo, G., Woods, B. and Greenwood, T. 2001. Understanding visitor perspective's on wildlife tourism. Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 2. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
Neil, D., Orams, M. and Baglioni, A. 1996. Effect of previous whale watching experience on participants knowledge of, and response to, whales and whale watching. Pages 182-1888 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Noad, M. J. and Cato, D. H. 2001. combined acoustic and visual survey of humpback whales off southeast Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 47(2):507-523.
Nowacek, S. M., Wells, R. S. and Solow, A. R. 2001. Shortterm effects of boat traffic on bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Marine Mammal Science. 17:673-688.
O'Neill, F. 2001. Ecologically sustainable management of tourist-minke whale interaction: visitor experiences with dwarf minke whales in the far Northern Region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland. p 97-99 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
O'Neill, F. and Lee, D. 2001. Dolphin interaction: Tourism management and best practice. p 34-38 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Orams, M. B. 1994. Creating effective interpretation for managing interaction between tourists and wildlife. Australian Journal of Environmental Education 10:21-34.
Orams M. 1996. Cetacean education: can we run tourists into ‘greenies'? p 167-177 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser, A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Orams, M. B., Hill, G. J. E. and Baglioni, A. J. Jr. 1996. “Pushy” behavior in a wild dolphin feeding program at Tangalooma, Australia. Marine Mammal Science 12:101-117.
Paterson, R. A. and Paterson, P. 1984. A study of the past and present status of humpback whales in east Australian waters. Biological Conservation 47: 33-48.
Paterson, R. A. and Paterson, P. 1989. The status of the recovering stock of humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae) in east Australian waters. Biological Conservation 47: 33-48.
Paterson, R. A., Paterson, P. and Cato, D. H. 1994. The status of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in east Australia thirty years after whaling. Biological Conservation 70: 135-142.
Paterson, R. A., Paterson, P. and Cato, D. H. 2001. Status of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in east Australia at the end of the 20th century. Memoirs Of The Queensland Museum 47(2):579-586.
Peterson, H. 2001. Studying and mitigating disturbance to humpback whales near Juneau, Alaska. p 99-103 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Richardson, W. J. 1995. Documented disturbance reactions. p 241-576 in Marine Mammals and Noise, edited by W. Richardson, C. Greene, C. Malme and D. Thomson. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Richter, C., Dawson, S. and Slooten, E. 2001. Sperm whale watching off Kaikoura, NZ: current research, impacts and education. In Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Scarpaci, C., Corkeron, P. J., Nugegoda, D. 2001a.Compliance with regulations by swim-with-dolphins operations in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria Australia. p 30-31 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Scarpaci, C., Corkeron, P. J. and Nugegoda, D. 2001b. Monitoring whistles produced by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during approaches by commercial dolphin-swim charters: A new perspective to managing cetacean based ecotourism. Proceedings of the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammal Conference. Phillip Island, Vic.
Spradlin, T. R., Nitta, E. T., Lewandowski, J. K., Barre, L. M., Brix, K. and Norberg, B. 2001 Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild: a Workshop to Discuss Responsible Guidelines and Regulations for Minimizing Disturbance. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Stevens, T., Jeffery, A. and Coughran, D. 1995. Whale watching in Australia- an agency view. Proceedings of Encounter with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra. ACT.
Stokes, T, Dobbs, K. and Recchia C. 2002. Management of marine mammal tours on the Great Barrier Reef. Australian Mammalogy 24:39-49.
Trites, A. and Bain, D. E. 2000. Short and long-term effects of whale watching on killer whales in British Columbia. International Whaling Commission. SC/52/WW18.
Vang, L. 2002. Distribution, abundance and biology of Group V humpback whales Megaptera novaeanglia: a review. Conservation Management Report to the Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, Qld. 20 pp.
Waples, K. A. 1997. The rehabilitation and release of bottlenose dolphins from Atlantis Marine Park, Western Australia. Doctoral Dissertation. Texas A&M University. 211pp.
Weir, J., Dunn, W., Bell, A. and Chatfield, B. 1996. An investigation into the impact of dolphin swim ecotours in southern Port Phillip Bay. Report to the Department of Tourism, Federal Government, Australia.
Wells, R. S. and Scott, M. D. 1997. Seasonal incidence of boat strikes on bottlenose dolphins near Sarasota, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 13: 475-480.
Wilson, B., Hammond, P. S. and Thompson, P. M. 1999. Estimating size and assessing trends in a coastal bottlenose dolphin population. Ecological Applications 9(1): 288-300.
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References

Allen, S. J. and Harcourt, R. G. 2001. Big brother is watching from under-water, above-water and on-land: assessing the behaviour of tour vessels around bottlenose dolphins. Abstract in the Proceedings of the 14th Biennial Conference on the Biology Marine Mammals. Society for Marine Mammalogy. Vancouver.
Allen, M. C. and Read, A. J. 2000. Habitat selection of foraging bottlenose dolphins in relation to boat density near Clearwater, Florida. Marine Mammal Science 16: 815-824.
Anderson, G. R. V., Forbes, M. A. and Pirzl, R. M. 1996. A national overview of the development of whale watching in Australia. p 5-16 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser, A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
ANZECC. 2000 Australian national guidelines for cetacean observation and areas of special interest for cetacean observation. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council., Canberra, ACT.
ANZECC. 1998 Humpback Whale Research and Conservation Seminar. Department of Environment and Heritage, Brisbane, Qld.
Baker, C. S. and Herman, L. M. 1989 Behavioral responses of summering humpback whales to vessel traffic: experimental and opportunistic observations. Final report to the United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Anchorage Alaska. Technical report NPS-NR-TRS-89-01.
Bannister, J. L. 1985. Southern right ( Eubalaena australis) and humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) whales off Western Australia: some recent aerial survey work. Pages 105-113 in Studies of Sea Mammals in South Latitudes, edited by J. K. King and M. M. Bryden. South Australian Museum, Adelaide, SA.
Bannister, J.L 1986. Southern right whales status off Australia from twentieth century ‘incidental’ sighting and aerial survey. Report to the International Whaling Commission. Special issue 10: 153-157.
Bannister, J. L. 2001. Status of southern right whales ( Eubalaena australis) off southern Australia. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management (Special Issue 2).
Bannister, J. L., Kemper, C. M. and Warneke, R. M. 1996 The Action Plan for Australian Cetaceans. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra
Bannister, J. L. and Hedley, S. H. 2001. Southern hemisphere Group IV humpback whales: Their status from recent aerial survey. Memoirs Of The Queensland Museum 47(2):587-598.
Beaumont, N. 2001. Ecotourism and the conservation ethic: recruiting the uninitiated or preaching to the converted? Journal of Sustainable Tourism 9:317-341.
Bejder, L., Dawson, S. M. and Harraway, J. A. 1999. Response by Hector's dolphins to boats and swimmers in Porpoise Bay, New Zealand. Marine Mammal Science 15: 738-750.
Birtles, R. A., Arnold, P. W. and Dunstan, A. 2002. Commercial swim programs with dwarf minke whales on the Northern Great Barrier Reef, Australia: some characteristics of the encounters with management implications. Australian Mammalogy 24: 23-38.
Brix, K. and Nitta, E. T. 2001. Whale watching and humpback whale protection in Hawaii and Alaska. Pages 50-51 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Burnell, S. R. and McCulloch, R. E. 2003 Draft Recovery Plan for the Southern Right Whale in Australian Waters. Unpublished report. Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Burnell, S. R., 1999. The population biology of southern right whales in southern Australian waters. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Sydney. Sydney, Australia; 227pp.
Chaloupka, M. and Osmond, M. 1999. Spatial and seasonal distribution of humpback whales in the Great Barrier Reef Region. American Fisheries Society Symposium 23:89-106.
Chilvers, B. L. 2000. The apparent dependence of some bottlenose dolphins on trawler discard within Morton Bay, SE. Queensland. Abstract in the Proceedings from the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammal Conference. Phillip Island, Vic.
CMC and NMFS. 1988 Proceedings of the Workshop to Review and Evaluate Whale Watching Programs and Management Needs. Sponsored by the Center for Marine Conservation and National Marine Fisheries Service. November 14-16, 1988, Monterey, California. 53pp.
Coleman, G. and Hunter, I. 2002. Proposed regulation of the commercial marine mammal observation tour industry. NSW Government Discussion Paper. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW.
Connor, R. C. and Smolker, R. S. 1985. Habituated dolphins ( Tursiops sp.) in Western Australia. Journal of Mammalogy 66:398-400.
Connor, R. C., Heithaus, M. R. and Barre, L. M. 2001. Complex social structure, alliance stability and mating access in a bottlenose dolphin ‘super-alliance’. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 268:263-267.
Constantine, R. 2001. Increased avoidance of swimmers by wild bottlenose dolphins due to long-term exposure to swim-with-dolphin tourism. Marine Mammal Science 17:689-702.
Corbelli, C. 2001. An evaluation of the impact of whale watching vessels on humpback whales in Newfoundland, Canada and an evaluation of voluntary codes of conduct to minimize impact and ensure passenger benefits. p 83-85 in Viewing Marine Mammals in the Wild, a workshop to discuss responsible guidelines and regulations for minimizing disturbance, edited by T. Spradlin, E. Nitta, J. Lewandowski, L. Barre, K. Brix and B. Norberg. NOAA Fisheries. Vancouver, BC.
Corkeron, P. 1990. Aspects of the behavioural ecology of the inshore dolphins Tursiops truncatus and Sousa chinensis in Moreton Bay, Australia. Pages 285-293 in The Bottlenose Dolphin, edited by S. Leatherwood and R. Reeves. Academic Press Inc, San Diego, California.
Corkeron, P. J. 1995. Humpback whales in Hervey Bay, Qld: behavior and responses to whale -watching vessels. Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 1290-1299.
Corkeron, P. J. 1996. Research priorities for whale watching in Australia: a scientist's viewpoint. p 133-136 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery). Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Coughran, D. and Crawford, S. 1996. Marine mammal interaction: an overview of the whale watching industry in Western Australia 1989-1994. p 161-166 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Dunn, W. and Goldsworthy, A. 2000. Behavioural responses of bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus) to dolphin swim tour vessels in southern Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Poster Presentation Australian Marine Science Association Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Erbe, C. 2000. Underwater noise of whale watching boats and its effects on marine mammals. International Whaling Commission. SC/2/WW11.
Findlay, K. 2001. Can we watch whales and not disturb them? Abstract in the Proceedings from the Southern Hemisphere Marine Mammal Conference. Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia.
Frohoff, T. G., Herzig, D. L. and Santos, M. 1995. Report from the workshop Human-interactions with small cetaceans: research and management. Convened at the 11th Biennial conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, December 1995, Orlando FL.
Goldsworthy, A. and Dunn, W. 2000. Residency status of a population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in southern Port Phillip Bay, Victoria 1997-1999. Poster Presentation. Australian Marine Science Association Conference, Sydney, Australia.
Green, R. and Higginbotham, K. 2001. The Negative Effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife. Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 1. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
Grossek, G. 1998. Regulatory Impact Statement: Wildlife (Whales) Regulations 1998. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Melbourne, Victoria.
Higginbotham, K. Northrope, C. L. and Green, R. J. 2001. Positive effects of wildlife tourism on wildlife habitats. Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 6. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series, CRC for Sustainable Tourism.
Hoyt, E. 1996. Whale watching: a global overview of the industry's rapid growth and some implications and suggestions fro Australia. p 31-36 in Proceedings of Encounters with Whales, edited by K. Colgan, S. Prasser and A. Jeffery. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Hoyt, E. 2001. Whale watching 2001: Worldwide tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding socioeconomic benefits. International Fund for Animal Welfare, Yarmouth Port, MA USA. 158pp.
IFAW, Tethys Research Institute and Europe Conservation. 1995 Report of the workshop on scientific aspects of managing whale watching. Sponsored by International Fund for Animal Welfare and Tethys Research Institute and Europe Conservation Montecastello di Bivio, Italy. IFAW, Crowborough, UK. 40 pp.
International Whaling Commission. 1994 Forty-fourth report of the International Whaling Commission. Cambridge: IWC.
Janik, B. M. and Thompson, P. M. 1996. Changes in surfacing patterns of bottlenose dolphins in response to boat traffic. Marine Mammal Science 12: 597-602.
Kaufman, G. D., Lagerquist, B. A., Forestell, P. H. and Osmond M. G. 1993 Humpback whales of Australia: A catalogue of individual whales identified by fluke photographs. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. Brisbane.
Kemper, C. M., Mole, J., Warneke, R. M., Ling, J. K., Needham, D. J. and Wapstra, J. E. 1997. Southern Right Whales in southeastern Australia - aerial surveys during 1991-93 and incidental information from 1904. p 40-55 in Marine Mammal Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Volume 1: Status, Ecology and Medicine, edited by M. Hindell and C. Kemper. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, Melbourne, Australia.
Kruse, S. 1991. Interactions between killer whales and boats in Johnstone Strait, BC. p 149-159 in Dolphin Societies: Discoveries and Puzzles, edited by K. S. Norris and K. Pryor. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Lalime-Bauer, J. 2000. Operator compliance to Australian whale watching regulations and guidelines. International Whaling Commission. SC/52/WW4.
Lear, R. J. and Bryden, M. M. 1980. A study of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in eastern Australian waters. Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service Occasional Paper No. 4. 23pp.
Malcolm, C. and Duffus, D. 1998 Whale-watching workshop report summary. World Marine Mammal Science Conference. Monaco, January 19-26.
Mandelc, F. 1997
Mann J., Connor, R. C., Barre, L. M. and Heithaus, M. R. 2000. Female reproductive success in wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp): Life history, habitat, provisioning and group size effects. Behavioural Ecology 11:210-219.
Moller, L. M., Allen, S. J. and Harcourt, R. G. 2002. Group characteristics, site fidelity and seasonal abundance of bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus in Jervis Bay and Port Stephens, south eastern Australia. Australian Mammalogy 24:11-21.
Moller, L. M. and Harcourt, R. G. 1998. Social dynamics and activity patterns of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in Jervis Bay, Southeastern Australia. Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of NSW. 120: 181-189.
Moscardo, G., Woods, B. and Greenwood, T. 2001. Understanding visitor perspective's on wildlife tourism. Wildlife Tourism Research Report No. 2. Status Assessment of Wildlife Tourism in Australia Series. CRC for Sustainable Tourism, Gold Coast, Qld.
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