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The usefulness of listing individual marine species under Threatened Species legislation is discussed with respect to the characteristics of the marine environment and its biota. It is suggested that, apart from ‘flagship species’, this is not a useful strategy to follow. Instead, habitats need to be conserved. However, it needs to be stressed that threatening processes impacting on a habitat may originate from sources way beyond the habitat in question. The Great Barrier Reef illustrates this point well. Here water quality is, in large part, determined by catchment flows, which have a major effect on the communities of the GBR. Although our knowledge of the biota of the marine environment is limited, we must act now to manage and conserve it. We cannot wait until the identification and biology of all marine organisms has been documented. One of the next steps is to bring the marine environment into our mind and see that its future existence is inextricably part of our existence. Marine environments are different to those on land and need different management strategies. The major lesson is that we need to move from species conservation to a workable system of threatened habitat and ecosystem process management for the marine environment.

Adam, P. 1990 Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. 461pp.
Adam, P. 2003. Planning for the future of the New South Wales coast: history and science in the quest for certainty. Pp 49 - 54 in Conserving marine environments: out of sight; out of mind, edited by P. A. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Ayre, D. J. and Hughes, T.P, 2000. Genotypic diversity and gene flow in brooding and spawning corals along the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Evolution 54: 1590-1605
Ayre, D. J., Hughes, T.P and Standish, R. J. 1997. Genetic differentiation, reproductive mode, gene flow in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis along the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 159: 175-187.
Baird, A. H. and Marshall, P. A. 2002. Mortality, growth and reproduction in scleractinian corals following bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 237: 133-141.
Baker J. 2003. A report on the study of land sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. A report prepared by an Intergovernmental Steering Committee to Premiers Department, Queensland Government www.premiers.qld.gov.au/about/reefwater.pdf
Bellwood, D. R. and Hughes, T. P. 2001. Regional-Scale Assembly Rules and Biodiversity of Coral Reefs. Science 292: 1532-1534.
Brewer, D., Rawlinson, N., Eayrs, S. and Burridge, C. 1998. An assessment of bycatch reduction devices in a tropical Australian prawn trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 36, 195-215.
Brodie, J. E. 1997. Nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef region. In Nutrients in marine and estuarine environments. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series (Estuaries and the Sea). P. R. Cosser. Canberra, Department of the Environment: 7-28.
Brusca, R.C and Brusca, G. J. 1990 Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates Inc. Sunderland Massachusetts.
Buchanan, J. B., Sheader, M. and Kingston, P. F. 1978. Sources of variability in the benthic macrofauna off the south Northumberland coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 58: 191-209.
Capelin, M. A. and Prove, B. G. 1983. Soil conservation problems of the humid coastal tropics of North Queensland. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Sugar Cane Technology 5: 87-93.
Chaloupka, M. and Limpus, C. 1997. Heuristic simulation modelling of trawl fishery impacts on sGBR loggerhead population dynamics, pp 26-29, in, Proceedings of the 17th Annual Symposium of Sea Turtle Biology.
Chiswell, S. M., Wilkin, J., Booth, J. D. and Stanton, B. 2003. Trans-Tasman sea larval transport: Is Australia a source for New Zealand rock lobsters? Marine Ecology Progress Series 247: 173-182.
Conn, D. B. 1993 Atlas of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development.Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York.
Day, J., Fernandes, L., Barnett, B., Slegers, S., Kerrigan, B., Breen, D., De'ath, G., Lewis, A., Innes, J. and Oliver, J. 2002. The representative areas program-protecting the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia. Bali. Vol. 1: 687-696
Day, J., Hocking, M and Jones, G. in press. Measuring effectiveness in Marine Protected Areas-Principles and Practise. World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas. Cairns August 2002.
Fabricius, K. E. and De'ath, G. 2001. Biodiversity on the Great Barrier Reef: Large-scale patterns and turbidity-related local loss of soft coral taxa. Pp 127-144 in Oceanographic processes of coral reefs: physical and biological links in the Great Barrier Reef edited by E. Wolanski. London, CRC Press.
Frid, C. L. J., Clark, R. A. and Hall, J. A. 1999. Long-term changes in the benthos on a heavily fished ground off the NE coast of England. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188: 13-20.
Gabric, A. J. and Bell, P. R. F. 1993. Review of the effects of nonpoint nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44: 261-283.
GBRMPA, 1999. The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area-Framework for Management. Report to the World Heritage Committee 1999. GBRMPA. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/brochures/protecting_biodiversity/gbrwha_management_framework.pdf
Giangrande, A. 1997. Polychaete reproductive patterns, life cycles and life histories: an overview. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 35: 323-386.
Gilbert, M. in press. Landuse on the Great Barrier Reef catchment: a century of change. Research Publication Series. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Gosselin L. A. and Qian-P-Y. 1997. Juvenile mortality in benthic marine invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 146: 265-282.
Gray, J. S. 1997. Marine biodiversity: Patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 153-175.
Harrison, P. L. and Wallace, C. 1990. Reproduction, dispersal and recruitment of scleractinian corals. In: Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 25. Coral Reefs (ed. Dubinsky Z), pp. 133-207. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 839-866. http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Hughes, T. P., Baird, A. H., Dinsdale, E. A., Moltschaniwskyj, N. A., Pratchett, M. S., Tanner, J. E. and Willis, B. L. 1999. Patterns of recruitment and abundance of corals along the Great Barrier Reef. Nature 397: 59-63
Hutchings, P. A. (ed.) 1996. The ecology and management of Shorebirds (Aves; Charadrii). Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. CSIRO Vol 1; 55-142.
Hutchings, P. A. 2001 Anthropogenic changes to coastal marshes. In Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. I. Douglas. Wiley and Sons: 451-454.
Hutchings, P. A. and Jacoby, C. 1994. Temporal and spatial patterns in the distribution of infaunal polychaetes in Jervis Bay, New South Wales. Memoires du Museum D'Histoire Naturelle 162: 441-452.
Hutchings, P. A. and Ponder, W. F. 1999. Workshop: criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates. Pp 297-315 in The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates, edited by Ponder, W.F and Lunney, D. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman. NSW.
IUCN 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. As approved by the 40th Meeting of the IUCN Council Gland, Switzerland Prepared by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Species Survival Commission.
IUCN/SCC Criteria Review Working Group 1999. IUCN Red List Criteria Review provisional report. Draft of proposed changes and recommendations. Species (Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission, IUCN). 31/32: 43-57.
Johnson, D. R., Yeung, C. and Brown, C. A. 1999 Estimates of marine mammal and marine turtle bycatch by the US Atlantic pelagic longline fleet in 1992-1997, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-418, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.
Jones, G. and Candy, S. 1981. Effects of dredging on the macrobenthic infauna of Botany Bay. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 32: 379-398.
Kirkman, H. 1997. Seagrasses of Australia. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series (Estuaries and the Sea). Canberra, Department of the Environment.
Koslow, J. A. and Gowlett-Holmes, K. 1998. The seamount fauna off southern Tasmania: benthic communities, their conservation and impacts of trawling. Final report to Environment Australia and the Fisheries Research Development Corporation. Hobart, CSIRO Marine Fisheries. 104 pp.
Koslow, J. A., Gowlett-Holmes, K., Lowry, J. K., O'Hara, T., Poore, G. C. B. and Williams, A. 2001. Seamount benthic macrofauna off southern Tasmania: community structure and impacts of trawling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 213: 111-125.
Larkum, A. W. D. 1976. Ecology of Botany Bay. 1. Growth of Posidonia australis (Brown) Hook f. in Botany Bay and other bays of the Sydney basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 27: 117-127.
Mace, G. M. 1999. The IUCN criteria review: Report of the Marine Workshop. Report of a workshop held at the Asia centre of Japan, Tokyo on January 16-17 1999, part of the review of the IUCN Criteria for listing threatened species.
Materia, C. J. 1994. The status of the Tasmanian Seastar Marginaster littoralis Dartnall, 1970. Wildlife Report 94/8. Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania.
McCulloch, M., Fallon, S., Wyndham, T., Hendy, E., Lough, J., and Barnes, D. 2003. Coral record of increase sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since settlement. Nature 421: 727-730.
McQuillan, P. 1999. Tasmania: Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (In Appendix 1 in Hutchings, P. A. and Ponder, W. F., Workshop: criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates). In The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. W. Ponder and Lunney, D. Mosman, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 309.
Moore, M. 1998. The National Oceans Policy - will it be a vision for the future? Wildlife News (WWF) July-Sept 98: 6-7.
Moss, A. J., Rayment, G. E., Reilly, N. and Best, E. K. 1992. A preliminary assessment of sediment and nutrient exports from Queensland coastal catchments. Technical Report No. 4. Brisbane, Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. 33 pp.
Neil, D. T., Orpin, A. R., Ridd, P. V. and Yu, B. 2002. Sediment yield and impacts from river catchments to the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 733-752.
Newton, G. M. 1999. The deep sea environment - Earth's final frontier. Australian Marine Sciences Association Bulletin 147: 17-21.
O'Hara, T and Byrne, M. in press Echinodermata: Asteroidea, Ophiuriodea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea and Crinoidea. Fauna of Australia Vol, CSIRO Press.
Pawlik, J. R. 1990. Natural and artificial induction of metamorphosis of Phragmatopoma lapidosa californica (Polychaeta Sabellariidae) with a critical look at the effects of bioactive compounds on marine invertebrate larvae. Bulletin of Marine Science 46: 512-536.
Poiner, I., Glaister, J., Pitcher, R., Burridge, C., Wassenberg, T., Gribble, N., Hill, B., Blaber, S., Milton, D., Brewer, D. and Ellis, N. 1998. The environmental effects of prawn trawling in the far northern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: 1991 - 1996. Summary and Introduction, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 23 (Summary).
Poiner, I. and Harris, A. 1994. The incidental capture and mortality of sea turtles in Australia's northern prawn fishery, pp.127-135, in Proceedings of the Australian Marine Turtle Conservation Workshop, compiler R. James, Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage and Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Ponder, W. F., Hutchings, P.A and Chapman, R. 2002. Overview of the Conservation of Australia's marine invertebrates. A report for Environment Australia http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Potter, I. C. and Hyndes, G. A. 1999. Characteristics of the ichthyofaunas of southwestern Australian estuaries, including comparisons with holarctic and estuaries elsewhere in temperate Australia: A review. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 395-421.
Ray, G. C. 1996. Coastal-marine discontinuities and synergisms: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1095-1108.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury -Nepean catchment: Reconstruction and Restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-41.
Reed, J. and Clunie, P. 1997. Conservation of invertebrates in Victoria using the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 - achievements and potential for improvement. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 617-622.
Robins, J. B. 1995. Estimated catch and mortality of sea turtles from the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery of Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 74: 157-167.
Robins, J. B. and McGilvray, J. G. 1999. The AusTED II, an improved trawl efficiency device 2, Commercial performance. Fisheries Research, 40: 29-41.
Roberts, D. E., Smith, A., Ajani, P. and Davis, A. R. 1998. Rapid changes in encrusting marine assemblages exposed to anthropogenic point-source pollution: a ‘Beyond BACI’ approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 163: 213-224.
Rouse, G. W. 2000. Morphology and Physiology. In Polychaetes and Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A Polychaeta, Myzostomidae, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. Beesley, P. L. Ross, G. J. B. and Glasby, C. J. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne. 9-32.
Roy P. S. 1984. New South Wales estuaries; their origin and evolution. In Coastal Geomorphology in Australia (ed. B. G. Thom) Academic Press, Sydney pp. 99-121.
Roy P. S. and Boyd, R. 1996. Quaternary Geology of a tectonically stable wave dominated sediment-deficient margin, Southeast Australia. IGCP Project #367, Field Guide to the Central New South Wales Coast. November 1996. New South Wales Geological Survey, Sydney pp.174.
Schroeder, P. C. and Hermans, C. O. 1975. Annelida: Polychaeta. In Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. Vol. 111. Annelids and Echiurans. Giese, A. C. and Pearse, J. S. Academic Press: New York. 1-213.
Smith, S. D. A. 1997. The effects of domestic sewage effluent on marine communities at Coffs Harbour, New South Wales, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 33: 309-316.
Taylor, R. J. and Bryant, S. L. 1997. Compilation of a list of threatened invertebrates: the Tasmanian experience. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 605-609.
Trott, L. A. and Alongi, D. M. 2000. The impact of shrimp pond effluent on water quality and phytoplankton biomass in a tropical mangrove estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin 40: 947-951.
Wachenfeld, D. R., Oliver, J. K. and Morrissey, J. I. 1998. State of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area 1998. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 135 pp.
Williams, P., Anninos, P. J., Plotkin, P. T. and Salvini, K. L. 1996 Pelagic longline fishery-sea turtle interactions. Proceedings of an Industry, Academic and Government Experts, and Stakeholders Workshop held in Silver Spring, Maryland, 24-25 May 1994, NOAA Technical Memorandum, NMFS-OPR-7, US Department of Commerce.
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References

Adam, P. 1990 Saltmarsh Ecology. Cambridge Studies in Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK. 461pp.
Adam, P. 2003. Planning for the future of the New South Wales coast: history and science in the quest for certainty. Pp 49 - 54 in Conserving marine environments: out of sight; out of mind, edited by P. A. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Ayre, D. J. and Hughes, T.P, 2000. Genotypic diversity and gene flow in brooding and spawning corals along the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Evolution 54: 1590-1605
Ayre, D. J., Hughes, T.P and Standish, R. J. 1997. Genetic differentiation, reproductive mode, gene flow in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis along the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 159: 175-187.
Baird, A. H. and Marshall, P. A. 2002. Mortality, growth and reproduction in scleractinian corals following bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 237: 133-141.
Baker J. 2003. A report on the study of land sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. A report prepared by an Intergovernmental Steering Committee to Premiers Department, Queensland Government www.premiers.qld.gov.au/about/reefwater.pdf
Bellwood, D. R. and Hughes, T. P. 2001. Regional-Scale Assembly Rules and Biodiversity of Coral Reefs. Science 292: 1532-1534.
Brewer, D., Rawlinson, N., Eayrs, S. and Burridge, C. 1998. An assessment of bycatch reduction devices in a tropical Australian prawn trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 36, 195-215.
Brodie, J. E. 1997. Nutrients in the Great Barrier Reef region. In Nutrients in marine and estuarine environments. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series (Estuaries and the Sea). P. R. Cosser. Canberra, Department of the Environment: 7-28.
Brusca, R.C and Brusca, G. J. 1990 Invertebrates. Sinauer Associates Inc. Sunderland Massachusetts.
Buchanan, J. B., Sheader, M. and Kingston, P. F. 1978. Sources of variability in the benthic macrofauna off the south Northumberland coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 58: 191-209.
Capelin, M. A. and Prove, B. G. 1983. Soil conservation problems of the humid coastal tropics of North Queensland. Proceedings of the Australian Society for Sugar Cane Technology 5: 87-93.
Chaloupka, M. and Limpus, C. 1997. Heuristic simulation modelling of trawl fishery impacts on sGBR loggerhead population dynamics, pp 26-29, in, Proceedings of the 17th Annual Symposium of Sea Turtle Biology.
Chiswell, S. M., Wilkin, J., Booth, J. D. and Stanton, B. 2003. Trans-Tasman sea larval transport: Is Australia a source for New Zealand rock lobsters? Marine Ecology Progress Series 247: 173-182.
Conn, D. B. 1993 Atlas of Invertebrate Reproduction and Development.Wiley-Liss, Inc. New York.
Day, J., Fernandes, L., Barnett, B., Slegers, S., Kerrigan, B., Breen, D., De'ath, G., Lewis, A., Innes, J. and Oliver, J. 2002. The representative areas program-protecting the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia. Bali. Vol. 1: 687-696
Day, J., Hocking, M and Jones, G. in press. Measuring effectiveness in Marine Protected Areas-Principles and Practise. World Congress on Aquatic Protected Areas. Cairns August 2002.
Fabricius, K. E. and De'ath, G. 2001. Biodiversity on the Great Barrier Reef: Large-scale patterns and turbidity-related local loss of soft coral taxa. Pp 127-144 in Oceanographic processes of coral reefs: physical and biological links in the Great Barrier Reef edited by E. Wolanski. London, CRC Press.
Frid, C. L. J., Clark, R. A. and Hall, J. A. 1999. Long-term changes in the benthos on a heavily fished ground off the NE coast of England. Marine Ecology Progress Series 188: 13-20.
Gabric, A. J. and Bell, P. R. F. 1993. Review of the effects of nonpoint nutrient loading on coastal ecosystems. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 44: 261-283.
GBRMPA, 1999. The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area-Framework for Management. Report to the World Heritage Committee 1999. GBRMPA. http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/brochures/protecting_biodiversity/gbrwha_management_framework.pdf
Giangrande, A. 1997. Polychaete reproductive patterns, life cycles and life histories: an overview. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 35: 323-386.
Gilbert, M. in press. Landuse on the Great Barrier Reef catchment: a century of change. Research Publication Series. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Gosselin L. A. and Qian-P-Y. 1997. Juvenile mortality in benthic marine invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 146: 265-282.
Gray, J. S. 1997. Marine biodiversity: Patterns, threats and conservation needs. Biodiversity and Conservation 6: 153-175.
Harrison, P. L. and Wallace, C. 1990. Reproduction, dispersal and recruitment of scleractinian corals. In: Ecosystems of the World, Vol. 25. Coral Reefs (ed. Dubinsky Z), pp. 133-207. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50: 839-866. http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Hughes, T. P., Baird, A. H., Dinsdale, E. A., Moltschaniwskyj, N. A., Pratchett, M. S., Tanner, J. E. and Willis, B. L. 1999. Patterns of recruitment and abundance of corals along the Great Barrier Reef. Nature 397: 59-63
Hutchings, P. A. (ed.) 1996. The ecology and management of Shorebirds (Aves; Charadrii). Homebush Bay Ecological Studies 1993-1995. CSIRO Vol 1; 55-142.
Hutchings, P. A. 2001 Anthropogenic changes to coastal marshes. In Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. I. Douglas. Wiley and Sons: 451-454.
Hutchings, P. A. and Jacoby, C. 1994. Temporal and spatial patterns in the distribution of infaunal polychaetes in Jervis Bay, New South Wales. Memoires du Museum D'Histoire Naturelle 162: 441-452.
Hutchings, P. A. and Ponder, W. F. 1999. Workshop: criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates. Pp 297-315 in The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates, edited by Ponder, W.F and Lunney, D. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman. NSW.
IUCN 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. As approved by the 40th Meeting of the IUCN Council Gland, Switzerland Prepared by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Species Survival Commission.
IUCN/SCC Criteria Review Working Group 1999. IUCN Red List Criteria Review provisional report. Draft of proposed changes and recommendations. Species (Newsletter of the Species Survival Commission, IUCN). 31/32: 43-57.
Johnson, D. R., Yeung, C. and Brown, C. A. 1999 Estimates of marine mammal and marine turtle bycatch by the US Atlantic pelagic longline fleet in 1992-1997, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-418, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.
Jones, G. and Candy, S. 1981. Effects of dredging on the macrobenthic infauna of Botany Bay. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 32: 379-398.
Kirkman, H. 1997. Seagrasses of Australia. State of the Environment Technical Paper Series (Estuaries and the Sea). Canberra, Department of the Environment.
Koslow, J. A. and Gowlett-Holmes, K. 1998. The seamount fauna off southern Tasmania: benthic communities, their conservation and impacts of trawling. Final report to Environment Australia and the Fisheries Research Development Corporation. Hobart, CSIRO Marine Fisheries. 104 pp.
Koslow, J. A., Gowlett-Holmes, K., Lowry, J. K., O'Hara, T., Poore, G. C. B. and Williams, A. 2001. Seamount benthic macrofauna off southern Tasmania: community structure and impacts of trawling. Marine Ecology Progress Series 213: 111-125.
Larkum, A. W. D. 1976. Ecology of Botany Bay. 1. Growth of Posidonia australis (Brown) Hook f. in Botany Bay and other bays of the Sydney basin. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 27: 117-127.
Mace, G. M. 1999. The IUCN criteria review: Report of the Marine Workshop. Report of a workshop held at the Asia centre of Japan, Tokyo on January 16-17 1999, part of the review of the IUCN Criteria for listing threatened species.
Materia, C. J. 1994. The status of the Tasmanian Seastar Marginaster littoralis Dartnall, 1970. Wildlife Report 94/8. Parks and Wildlife Service, Tasmania.
McCulloch, M., Fallon, S., Wyndham, T., Hendy, E., Lough, J., and Barnes, D. 2003. Coral record of increase sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since settlement. Nature 421: 727-730.
McQuillan, P. 1999. Tasmania: Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (In Appendix 1 in Hutchings, P. A. and Ponder, W. F., Workshop: criteria for assessing and conserving threatened invertebrates). In The Other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates. W. Ponder and Lunney, D. Mosman, Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: 309.
Moore, M. 1998. The National Oceans Policy - will it be a vision for the future? Wildlife News (WWF) July-Sept 98: 6-7.
Moss, A. J., Rayment, G. E., Reilly, N. and Best, E. K. 1992. A preliminary assessment of sediment and nutrient exports from Queensland coastal catchments. Technical Report No. 4. Brisbane, Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage. 33 pp.
Neil, D. T., Orpin, A. R., Ridd, P. V. and Yu, B. 2002. Sediment yield and impacts from river catchments to the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Marine and Freshwater Research 53: 733-752.
Newton, G. M. 1999. The deep sea environment - Earth's final frontier. Australian Marine Sciences Association Bulletin 147: 17-21.
O'Hara, T and Byrne, M. in press Echinodermata: Asteroidea, Ophiuriodea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea and Crinoidea. Fauna of Australia Vol, CSIRO Press.
Pawlik, J. R. 1990. Natural and artificial induction of metamorphosis of Phragmatopoma lapidosa californica (Polychaeta Sabellariidae) with a critical look at the effects of bioactive compounds on marine invertebrate larvae. Bulletin of Marine Science 46: 512-536.
Poiner, I., Glaister, J., Pitcher, R., Burridge, C., Wassenberg, T., Gribble, N., Hill, B., Blaber, S., Milton, D., Brewer, D. and Ellis, N. 1998. The environmental effects of prawn trawling in the far northern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: 1991 - 1996. Summary and Introduction, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 23 (Summary).
Poiner, I. and Harris, A. 1994. The incidental capture and mortality of sea turtles in Australia's northern prawn fishery, pp.127-135, in Proceedings of the Australian Marine Turtle Conservation Workshop, compiler R. James, Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage and Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Ponder, W. F., Hutchings, P.A and Chapman, R. 2002. Overview of the Conservation of Australia's marine invertebrates. A report for Environment Australia http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Potter, I. C. and Hyndes, G. A. 1999. Characteristics of the ichthyofaunas of southwestern Australian estuaries, including comparisons with holarctic and estuaries elsewhere in temperate Australia: A review. Australian Journal of Ecology 24: 395-421.
Ray, G. C. 1996. Coastal-marine discontinuities and synergisms: implications for biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1095-1108.
Recher, H. F., Hutchings, P. A. and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury -Nepean catchment: Reconstruction and Restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-41.
Reed, J. and Clunie, P. 1997. Conservation of invertebrates in Victoria using the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 - achievements and potential for improvement. Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 56: 617-622.
Robins, J. B. 1995. Estimated catch and mortality of sea turtles from the East Coast Otter Trawl Fishery of Queensland, Australia. Biological Conservation 74: 157-167.
Robins, J. B. and McGilvray, J. G. 1999. The AusTED II, an improved trawl efficiency device 2, Commercial performance. Fisheries Research, 40: 29-41.
Roberts, D. E., Smith, A., Ajani, P. and Davis, A. R. 1998. Rapid changes in encrusting marine assemblages exposed to anthropogenic point-source pollution: a ‘Beyond BACI’ approach. Marine Ecology Progress Series 163: 213-224.
Rouse, G. W. 2000. Morphology and Physiology. In Polychaetes and Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia. Vol. 4A Polychaeta, Myzostomidae, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. Beesley, P. L. Ross, G. J. B. and Glasby, C. J. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne. 9-32.
Roy P. S. 1984. New South Wales estuaries; their origin and evolution. In Coastal Geomorphology in Australia (ed. B. G. Thom) Academic Press, Sydney pp. 99-121.
Roy P. S. and Boyd, R. 1996. Quaternary Geology of a tectonically stable wave dominated sediment-deficient margin, Southeast Australia. IGCP Project #367, Field Guide to the Central New South Wales Coast. November 1996. New South Wales Geological Survey, Sydney pp.174.
Schroeder, P. C. and Hermans, C. O. 1975. Annelida: Polychaeta. In Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. Vol. 111. Annelids and Echiurans. Giese, A. C. and Pearse, J. S. Academic Press: New York. 1-213.
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