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Debate surrounding the effectiveness, or otherwise, of marine reserves has not been well informed by data. However, in areas where marine reserves have been established for some time, valuable information is now becoming available. New Zealand's no-take marine reserves have demonstrated large increases in abundance and size of exploited species such as Snapper Pagrus auratus, Spiny Lobster Jasus edwardsii and Blue Cod Parapercis colias in marine reserves. Significant increases have been rapid, occurring within one year in the case of snapper, but only evident where full no-take protection is afforded. These increases in biomass of exploited species translate into levels of egg production between 4.4 and 18 times those of surrounding areas of coastline. There is no evidence of increased egg production translating into increased recruitment to fished populations, but such effects would be impossible to detect given the small proportions of coastline protected in reserves. There is some evidence that, in marine reserves, benthic soft bottom communities have responded to protection from direct effects of fishing such as trawling and dredging. More surprising have been the indirect responses of benthic reef communities to protection from fishing. Recovery of predators such as P. auratus and J. edwardsii has allowed urchin-dominated barrens areas to revert to more highly productive kelp forests. In this way reserves have allowed us novel insights into ecosystem function as well as the pervasiveness of indirect fishing effects. New Zealand reserves offer no direct evidence of the often-touted spillover-related enhancement of fisheries yield. However, they also show that reserves do not “lock up” fisheries resources and at least for J. edwardsii, CPUE (Catch Per Unit Effort), yield and costs are just the same adjacent to a reserve area as in open fishing areas nearby. Thus both conservation goals are achieved at no cost to the fishery. Despite advances in fisheries management structures in New Zealand, such as the Quota Management System, significant uncertainty remains about levels of stock abundance and catch rates. This is true even for New Zealand's best-studied stocks, such as P. auratus. Given that even the best fisheries management systems remain demonstrably less than perfect, it seems reasonable to try and guarantee some minimum level of stock abundance by putting in place marine reserves. On balance there is ample evidence to show that positive outcomes can be provided by reserves, and little or no support for suggestions that reserves will have negative effects for both conservation and fisheries.

Adams, S., Mapstone, B. D., Russ, G. R. and Davies, C. R. 2000. Geographic variation in the sex ratio, sex specific size, and age structure of Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) between reefs open and closed to fishing on the Great Barrier Reef. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 57:1448-1458.
Allison, G. W., Lubchenco, J. and Carr, M. H. 1998. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8 (Suppl.):79-92.
Andrew, N. L. and Choat, J. H. 1982. The influence of predation and conspecific adults on the abundance of juvenile Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) Oecologia 54:80-87.
Andrew, N. L. and MacDiarmid, A. B. 1991. Interrelations between sea urchins and spiny lobsters in northeastern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series 70:211-222.
Andrew, N. L. and O'Neill, A. L. 2000. Large-scale patterns in habitat structure on subtidal rocky reefs in New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research. 51:255-263.
Andrew, N. L., Naylor, J. R. and Kim, S. W. 2002. Fishery independent surveys of the relative abundance and size-structure of paua ( Haliotis iris) in Pau 5B and PAU 5D. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/41. 24 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Ayling, A. M. 1978. Okakari Point to Cape Rodney Marine Reserve Survey. 98 p. Leigh Marine Laboratory Bulletin 1. University of Auckland, Leigh.
Babcock, R. C., Kelly, S., Shears, N. T., Walker, J. W. and Willis, T. J. 1999. Large-scale habitat change in a temperate marine reserve. Marine Ecology Progress Series 189:125-134.
Bentley, N., McNeill, S. E., Davies, N. M. and Davies C. R. 2001. An example of assessing spatial closures as a fisheries management tool. 12 p. Draft Report to the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries.
Bohnsack, J. A. 1997. Consensus development and the use of marine reserves in the Florida Keys, USA. p. 1927-1930. 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama. edited by H. A. Lessios and I. G. Macintyre. Vol 2.
Bohnsack, J. A., Causey, B., Crosby, M. P., Griffis, R. B., Hixon, M. A., Hourigan, T. F., Koltes, K. H., Maragos, J. E., Simons, A. and Tilmant, J. T. 2002. A rationale for minimum 20-30% no take protection. 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali. edited by Kasim Moosa, M.K, et al. Bali Indonesia. Vol. 1: 615-620.
Boyd, R. O. and Reilly, J. L. 2002. 1999/2000 national marine recreational fishing survey: harvest estimates. Draft New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report. 28 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Choat, J.H and Schiel, D. R. 1982. Patterns of distribution and abundance of large brown algae and invertebrate herbivores in subtidal regions of northern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 60:129-162.
Cocklin, C., Craw, M. and McAuley, I. 1998. Marine reserves in New Zealand: use rights, public attitudes and social impacts. Coastal Management 26:213-231.
Cole, R. G. 1994. Abundance, size structure, and diveroriented behaviour of three large benthic carnivorous fishes in a marine reserve in northeastern New Zealand. Biological Conservation 70:93-99.
Cole, R. G. and Keuskamp, D. 1998. Indirect effects of protection from exploitation: patterns from populations of Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea) in northeastern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 173:215-226.
Cole, R. G., Villouta E. and Davidson, R. J. 2000. Direct evidence of limited dispersal of the reef fish Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae) within a marine reserve and adjacent fished areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 10:421-436.
Collie, J. S., Escanero, G. A. and Valentine, P. C. 1997. Effects of bottom fishing on benthic megafauna of Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 155:159-172.
Crossland, J. 1976. Snapper tagging in North-East New Zealand, 1974: Analysis of methods, return rates, and movements. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 10:675-686.
Davidson, R. J., Villouta, E. Cole, R. G. and Barrier, R. G. F. 2002. Effects of marine reserve protection on spiny lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) abundance and size at Tonga Island marine reserve, New Zealand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 12:213-227.
Dayton, P. K., Tegner, M. J., Edwards, P. B. and Kristin L. Riser. 1998. Sliding baselines, ghosts, and reduced expectations in kelp forest communities. Ecological Applications 8:309-322.
Denny, C., Babcock, R. 2002. ‘Fish survey of the Mimiwhangata Marine Park, Northland’. Report to the Department of Conservation. 28 pp.
Denny, C., Willis, T. J. and Babcock, R. C. 2002. Effects of Poor Knights Islands marine reserve on demersal fish populations. 57 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Department of Conservation, 2002. Marine Reserves Bill Has First Reading. http://www.doc.govt.nz/whats-new/presult.asp?prID=884
Dewees, C. M. 1998. Effects of individual quota systems on New Zealand and British Columbia fisheries. Ecological Applications. 8 (Suppl.):133-138.
Edgar, G. J. and Barrett, N. S. 1997. Short term monitoring of biotic change in Tasmanian marine reserves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 213:261-279.
Edgar, G. J. and Barrett, N. S. 1999. Effects of the declaration of marine reserves on Tasmanian reef fishes, invertebrates and plants Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 242:107-144.
Egli, D. P., and Babcock R. C. 2002. Optimising marine reserve design in New Zealand - Part I: Behavioural data for individual based models. 39 p. Report to the Department of Conservation, Northland Conservancy.
Fowler Walker, M. and Connell, S. D. 2002. Opposing states of subtidal habitat across temperate Australia: consistency and predictability in kelp canopy-benthic associations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 240:49-56.
Francis, M. P. 1993. Does water temperature determine year class strength in New Zealand snapper ( Pagrus auratus, Sparidae)? Fisheries Oceanography 2:65-72.
Francour, P., Harmelin, J.-G., Pollard, D., Sartoretto, S., 2001 A review of marine protected areas in the northwestern Mediterranean region: siting, usage, zonation and management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11: 155-188.
Freeman, D. J. and Duffy, C. A. J. 2003. Te Angiangi marine reserve: reef fish and rock lobster monitoring 1995-2001. Department of Conservation, East Coast Hawke's Bay Conservancy.
Gilbert, D. J., McKenzie, J. R., Davies, N. M. and Field, K. D. 2000. Assessment of the SNA 1 stocks for the 1999-2000 fishing year. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/38. 52 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Green Party, 2002. Greens want more marine reserves. http://onenews.nzoom.com/onenews_detail/0,1227,100795-1-8,00.html
Harley, S. J. and Gilbert, D. J. 2000. Assessment of the Tasman and Golden Bays snapper fishery for the 1999-2000 fishing year. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/28. 42 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Hillborn, R. 2002. Marine reserves and fishery management. Science 295:1233-1234.
Jennings, S., Kaiser, M. J. and Reynolds, J. D. 2001 Marine Fisheries Ecology. 417 p. Blackwell Science Oxford
Jones, G. P., Cole, R. C. and Battershill, C. N. 1992. Marine reserves: do they work? pp. 29-45. in Proceedings of the Second International Temperate Reef Symposium edited by C. N. Battershill et al. NIWA, Wellington.
Jones, G. P., Milicich, M. J. Emslie, M. J.and Lunow, C. 1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population Nature 402:802-804.
Kelly, S. 1999. 1999 Lobster survey of Te Awaatu (The Gut) marine reserve, Doubtful Sound. 12 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Kelly, S. 2000. 2000 Lobster survey of the Cathedral Cove (Te Whanganui A Hei) marine reserve. 15 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Kelly, S., 2001. Temporal variation in the movement of the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. Marine and Freshwater Research 52:323-331.
Kelly, S., MacDiarmid, A. B., and Babcock, R. C., 1999. Characteristics of spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, aggregations in exposed reef and sandy areas. Marine and Freshwater Research 50:409-416
Kelly, S., Scott, D., MacDiarmid, A. B. and Babcock, R. C., 2000. Spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, recovery in New Zealand marine reserves. Biological Conservation 92:359-369.
Kelly, S. and Haggitt, T. 2002. Cape Rodney to Okakari Point marine reserve lobster monitoring program: May 2002 Survey. 25 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Kelly, S., Scott, D. and MacDiarmid, A. B. 2002. The value of a spillover fishery for spiny lobsters around a marine reserve in northern New Zealand. Coastal Management 30:153-166.
Kramer, D. L. and Chapman, M. R. 1999. Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Environmental Biology of Fishes 55:65-79.
Lauck, T., Clark, C. W., Mangel, M. and Munro, G. R. 1998. Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves. Ecological Applications 8 (Suppl.):72-78.
Lough, P. 2002. Editorial Comment. Seafood New Zealand September:1-2
Ministry of Fisheries. 2003. Blue Cod 7 Consultation. 24 p. http://www.mfish.govt.nz/current/blue-cod/index.html. New Zealand Ministry of fisheries, Wellington.
MacDiarmid, A. B. and Breen, P. A. 1982. Spiny lobster population change in a marine reserve. pp. 47-56. in Proceedings of the Second International Temperate Reef Symposium edited by C. N. Battershill et al. NIWA, Wellington.
Murawski, S. A., Brown, R. Lai, H. L. Rago, P. J. and Hendrikson, L. 2000. Large-scale closed areas as a fishery management tool in temperate marine systems: the Georges Bank experience. Bulletin of Marine Science. 66:775-798.
New Zealand Fishing Council. 2001. Opposition to marine reserve call. http://onenews.nzoom.com/onenews_detail/0,1227,70663-1-7,00.html
O'Dor, R. K., Aitken, J. P., Babcock, R. C., Bolden, S. K., Seino, S., Zeller, D. C., and Jackson, G. D. 2001 Using radioacoustic positioning and telemetry (RAPT) to define and assess marine protected areas (MPAs). in: Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries Methods and Technologies in Fish Biology and Fisheries, Vol 1, edited by J. Sibert and J. Nielsen. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.
Option4. 2002. What does option4 stand for? http://option4.co.nz/whatdoes.htm
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Willis, T. J., Parsons, D. M. and Babcock, R. C. 2001. Evidence for site fidelity of snapper ( Pagrus auratus) within a marine reserve. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35:581-590.
Willis, T. J., Millar, R. B. and Babcock, R. C. 2003. in press Protection of exploited fishes in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves. Journal of Applied Ecology 40: 214-227.
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References

Adams, S., Mapstone, B. D., Russ, G. R. and Davies, C. R. 2000. Geographic variation in the sex ratio, sex specific size, and age structure of Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) between reefs open and closed to fishing on the Great Barrier Reef. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 57:1448-1458.
Allison, G. W., Lubchenco, J. and Carr, M. H. 1998. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation. Ecological Applications 8 (Suppl.):79-92.
Andrew, N. L. and Choat, J. H. 1982. The influence of predation and conspecific adults on the abundance of juvenile Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea: Echinodermata) Oecologia 54:80-87.
Andrew, N. L. and MacDiarmid, A. B. 1991. Interrelations between sea urchins and spiny lobsters in northeastern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series 70:211-222.
Andrew, N. L. and O'Neill, A. L. 2000. Large-scale patterns in habitat structure on subtidal rocky reefs in New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research. 51:255-263.
Andrew, N. L., Naylor, J. R. and Kim, S. W. 2002. Fishery independent surveys of the relative abundance and size-structure of paua ( Haliotis iris) in Pau 5B and PAU 5D. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/41. 24 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Ayling, A. M. 1978. Okakari Point to Cape Rodney Marine Reserve Survey. 98 p. Leigh Marine Laboratory Bulletin 1. University of Auckland, Leigh.
Babcock, R. C., Kelly, S., Shears, N. T., Walker, J. W. and Willis, T. J. 1999. Large-scale habitat change in a temperate marine reserve. Marine Ecology Progress Series 189:125-134.
Bentley, N., McNeill, S. E., Davies, N. M. and Davies C. R. 2001. An example of assessing spatial closures as a fisheries management tool. 12 p. Draft Report to the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries.
Bohnsack, J. A. 1997. Consensus development and the use of marine reserves in the Florida Keys, USA. p. 1927-1930. 8th International Coral Reef Symposium, Panama. edited by H. A. Lessios and I. G. Macintyre. Vol 2.
Bohnsack, J. A., Causey, B., Crosby, M. P., Griffis, R. B., Hixon, M. A., Hourigan, T. F., Koltes, K. H., Maragos, J. E., Simons, A. and Tilmant, J. T. 2002. A rationale for minimum 20-30% no take protection. 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali. edited by Kasim Moosa, M.K, et al. Bali Indonesia. Vol. 1: 615-620.
Boyd, R. O. and Reilly, J. L. 2002. 1999/2000 national marine recreational fishing survey: harvest estimates. Draft New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report. 28 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Choat, J.H and Schiel, D. R. 1982. Patterns of distribution and abundance of large brown algae and invertebrate herbivores in subtidal regions of northern New Zealand. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 60:129-162.
Cocklin, C., Craw, M. and McAuley, I. 1998. Marine reserves in New Zealand: use rights, public attitudes and social impacts. Coastal Management 26:213-231.
Cole, R. G. 1994. Abundance, size structure, and diveroriented behaviour of three large benthic carnivorous fishes in a marine reserve in northeastern New Zealand. Biological Conservation 70:93-99.
Cole, R. G. and Keuskamp, D. 1998. Indirect effects of protection from exploitation: patterns from populations of Evechinus chloroticus (Echinoidea) in northeastern New Zealand. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 173:215-226.
Cole, R. G., Villouta E. and Davidson, R. J. 2000. Direct evidence of limited dispersal of the reef fish Parapercis colias (Pinguipedidae) within a marine reserve and adjacent fished areas. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 10:421-436.
Collie, J. S., Escanero, G. A. and Valentine, P. C. 1997. Effects of bottom fishing on benthic megafauna of Georges Bank. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 155:159-172.
Crossland, J. 1976. Snapper tagging in North-East New Zealand, 1974: Analysis of methods, return rates, and movements. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 10:675-686.
Davidson, R. J., Villouta, E. Cole, R. G. and Barrier, R. G. F. 2002. Effects of marine reserve protection on spiny lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) abundance and size at Tonga Island marine reserve, New Zealand. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 12:213-227.
Dayton, P. K., Tegner, M. J., Edwards, P. B. and Kristin L. Riser. 1998. Sliding baselines, ghosts, and reduced expectations in kelp forest communities. Ecological Applications 8:309-322.
Denny, C., Babcock, R. 2002. ‘Fish survey of the Mimiwhangata Marine Park, Northland’. Report to the Department of Conservation. 28 pp.
Denny, C., Willis, T. J. and Babcock, R. C. 2002. Effects of Poor Knights Islands marine reserve on demersal fish populations. 57 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Department of Conservation, 2002. Marine Reserves Bill Has First Reading. http://www.doc.govt.nz/whats-new/presult.asp?prID=884
Dewees, C. M. 1998. Effects of individual quota systems on New Zealand and British Columbia fisheries. Ecological Applications. 8 (Suppl.):133-138.
Edgar, G. J. and Barrett, N. S. 1997. Short term monitoring of biotic change in Tasmanian marine reserves. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 213:261-279.
Edgar, G. J. and Barrett, N. S. 1999. Effects of the declaration of marine reserves on Tasmanian reef fishes, invertebrates and plants Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 242:107-144.
Egli, D. P., and Babcock R. C. 2002. Optimising marine reserve design in New Zealand - Part I: Behavioural data for individual based models. 39 p. Report to the Department of Conservation, Northland Conservancy.
Fowler Walker, M. and Connell, S. D. 2002. Opposing states of subtidal habitat across temperate Australia: consistency and predictability in kelp canopy-benthic associations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 240:49-56.
Francis, M. P. 1993. Does water temperature determine year class strength in New Zealand snapper ( Pagrus auratus, Sparidae)? Fisheries Oceanography 2:65-72.
Francour, P., Harmelin, J.-G., Pollard, D., Sartoretto, S., 2001 A review of marine protected areas in the northwestern Mediterranean region: siting, usage, zonation and management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11: 155-188.
Freeman, D. J. and Duffy, C. A. J. 2003. Te Angiangi marine reserve: reef fish and rock lobster monitoring 1995-2001. Department of Conservation, East Coast Hawke's Bay Conservancy.
Gilbert, D. J., McKenzie, J. R., Davies, N. M. and Field, K. D. 2000. Assessment of the SNA 1 stocks for the 1999-2000 fishing year. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/38. 52 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Green Party, 2002. Greens want more marine reserves. http://onenews.nzoom.com/onenews_detail/0,1227,100795-1-8,00.html
Harley, S. J. and Gilbert, D. J. 2000. Assessment of the Tasman and Golden Bays snapper fishery for the 1999-2000 fishing year. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2002/28. 42 p. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Hillborn, R. 2002. Marine reserves and fishery management. Science 295:1233-1234.
Jennings, S., Kaiser, M. J. and Reynolds, J. D. 2001 Marine Fisheries Ecology. 417 p. Blackwell Science Oxford
Jones, G. P., Cole, R. C. and Battershill, C. N. 1992. Marine reserves: do they work? pp. 29-45. in Proceedings of the Second International Temperate Reef Symposium edited by C. N. Battershill et al. NIWA, Wellington.
Jones, G. P., Milicich, M. J. Emslie, M. J.and Lunow, C. 1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population Nature 402:802-804.
Kelly, S. 1999. 1999 Lobster survey of Te Awaatu (The Gut) marine reserve, Doubtful Sound. 12 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Kelly, S. 2000. 2000 Lobster survey of the Cathedral Cove (Te Whanganui A Hei) marine reserve. 15 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Kelly, S., 2001. Temporal variation in the movement of the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. Marine and Freshwater Research 52:323-331.
Kelly, S., MacDiarmid, A. B., and Babcock, R. C., 1999. Characteristics of spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, aggregations in exposed reef and sandy areas. Marine and Freshwater Research 50:409-416
Kelly, S., Scott, D., MacDiarmid, A. B. and Babcock, R. C., 2000. Spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, recovery in New Zealand marine reserves. Biological Conservation 92:359-369.
Kelly, S. and Haggitt, T. 2002. Cape Rodney to Okakari Point marine reserve lobster monitoring program: May 2002 Survey. 25 p. Report to the Department of Conservation.
Kelly, S., Scott, D. and MacDiarmid, A. B. 2002. The value of a spillover fishery for spiny lobsters around a marine reserve in northern New Zealand. Coastal Management 30:153-166.
Kramer, D. L. and Chapman, M. R. 1999. Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Environmental Biology of Fishes 55:65-79.
Lauck, T., Clark, C. W., Mangel, M. and Munro, G. R. 1998. Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves. Ecological Applications 8 (Suppl.):72-78.
Lough, P. 2002. Editorial Comment. Seafood New Zealand September:1-2
Ministry of Fisheries. 2003. Blue Cod 7 Consultation. 24 p. http://www.mfish.govt.nz/current/blue-cod/index.html. New Zealand Ministry of fisheries, Wellington.
MacDiarmid, A. B. and Breen, P. A. 1982. Spiny lobster population change in a marine reserve. pp. 47-56. in Proceedings of the Second International Temperate Reef Symposium edited by C. N. Battershill et al. NIWA, Wellington.
Murawski, S. A., Brown, R. Lai, H. L. Rago, P. J. and Hendrikson, L. 2000. Large-scale closed areas as a fishery management tool in temperate marine systems: the Georges Bank experience. Bulletin of Marine Science. 66:775-798.
New Zealand Fishing Council. 2001. Opposition to marine reserve call. http://onenews.nzoom.com/onenews_detail/0,1227,70663-1-7,00.html
O'Dor, R. K., Aitken, J. P., Babcock, R. C., Bolden, S. K., Seino, S., Zeller, D. C., and Jackson, G. D. 2001 Using radioacoustic positioning and telemetry (RAPT) to define and assess marine protected areas (MPAs). in: Electronic tagging and tracking in marine fisheries Methods and Technologies in Fish Biology and Fisheries, Vol 1, edited by J. Sibert and J. Nielsen. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.
Option4. 2002. What does option4 stand for? http://option4.co.nz/whatdoes.htm
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