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This chapter presents an overview of Conserving Marine Environments Out of sight, out of mind, and it provides a context for conserving Australia's marine environment by commenting on the Coasts and Oceans, Australia State of the Environment 2001 (Theme Report) then looks at the marine environment through the eyes of the media and conservation non-government organisations. The ASEC, 2001 concluded that water quality and loss of habitats are the major issues facing Australia and that the quality of estuarine and coastal waters has not improved. Commonwealth legislation is consistent around Australia, but this is not the case for the states. There is little protection in international waters, where threatened seabirds spend part of their life. Salinity has gradually intruded upstream, but proposals to increase environmental flows of freshwater to restore wetlands have not been acted on. Initially, small isolated aquatic reserves were established, but recently larger areas have been declared as multi-use parks with zones. Off-park conservation is also critical for long-term survival, given such findings that there is no area of Australia's continental shelf that has not been trawled and a large amount of the surface epifauna removed. It is essential to link excellent science and policy with immense public support, and this endeavour is being supported by some high quality journalism. The papers published here reinforce the need for active marine conservation, both of coastal and offshore habitats, and the need for sustainable management of our marine resources. The challenge is also to acknowledge the great time scale on which the marine environment functions and its immense geographical scale, not to mention the long-term contribution of the scientific imagination in everything from experimental design to the naming of a mollusc on a seamount.

Adam, P. 2003. Planning for the future of the New South Wales coast: history and science in the quest for certainty. Pp 49-54 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
ASEC. 2001. Coasts and Oceans, Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 ( Theme Report). CSIRO Publishing on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Avery, R. P. 2003. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning - how different are they? Pp 18-40 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Babcock, R. 2003 The New Zealand Marine Reserve Experience: the science behind the politics.Pp 108-119 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Baker J. 2003. A report on the study of land sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. A report prepared by an Intergovernmental Steering Committee to Premiers Department, Queensland Government www.premiers.qld.gov.au/about/reefwater.pdf.
Benkendorff, K. 2002. Potential conservation benefits and problems associated with bioprospecting in the marine environment. Pp 90-100 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Brown, I. 2002. Oldest MPA in the world: Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Designated 1879. MPA News, 3(6):5.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1998 Australia's Oceans Policy. Canberra, Australia.
Creese, B. and Breen, D. 2003. Marine Protected Areas in New South Wales, Australia: challenges for research. Pp 120-128 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Day, J., Fernandes, L., Barnett, B., Slegers, S., Kerrigan, B., Breen, D., De'ath, G., Lewis, A., Innes, J. and Oliver, J. 2002. The representative areas program-protecting the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia. Bali. Volume 2: 687-696.
Fabricius, K. E. and De'ath, G. 2001. Biodiversity on the Great Barrier Reef: Large-scale patterns and turbidity-related local loss of soft coral taxa. Pp 127-144 in Oceanographic processes of coral reefs: physical and biological links in the Great Barrier Reef, edited by E. Wolanski. London, CRC Press.
Fairfull, S. and Williams, R. 2003. Pp. 55-61 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hutchings, P. A., 1990. A review of the effects of trawling on macro benthic epifaunal communities. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 111-120.
Hutchings, P. A. 2000. The challenge to conserve and manage Australia's marine biodiversity. Pacific Conservation Biology 5(4): 242-249.
Hutchings, P. A. 2003. Threatened Species Management: out of its depth for marine invertebrates. Pp 81-88 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berger, W. H., Bjorndal, K. A., Botsford, L. W., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R., Erlandson, J., Estes, J. A., Hughes, T. P., Kidwell, S., Lange, C. B., Lenihan, H. S., Pandolfi, J. M., Peterson, C. H., Steneck, R. S., Tegner, M. J. and Warner, R. R. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-638.
Johannes, R. E. 1981 Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau district of Micronesia. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 245pp.
Kelleher G., Bleakley, C. and Wells. S. 1995 A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, The World Bank, IUCN. Washington, DC 4 volumes.
Kenchington, R. 2003. Managing marine environments: an introduction to issues of sustainability, conservation, planning and implementation. Pp 41-48 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Kent, R. 2003 Liquid Sea. Catalogue publication, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney.
Levin, L., Blair, N., De Masters, D., Plaia, G., Fornes, W., Martin, C. and Thomas, C. 1997. Rapid subduction of organic matter by maldanid polychaetes on the North Carolina slope. Journal of Marine Research 55: 595-611.
Lunney, D. 2002. How the environment figured in the 2001 federal election. Australian Zoologist 32: 101-11.
Lunney, D., Pressey, B., Archer, M., Hand, S., Godthelp, H. and Curtin, A. 1997. Integrating ecology and economics: illustrating the need to resolve the conflicts of space and time. Ecological Economics 23: 135-42.
Lunney, D., Dickman, C. and Burgin, S. 2002. A bizarre and threatening process: the by-passing of ecological research when tackling environmental issues. Pp 97-101 in Community and research-based conservation: a clash of paradigms, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Myers R. A. and Worm, B. 2003. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423: 280-283.
Pitcher, C. R., Burridge, C. Y., Wassenberg, T. J. and Poiner, I. R. 1997. The effects of prawn trawl fisheries on GBR seabed habitats. The Great Barrier Reef - science, use and management. A national conference. Pp 107-123. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Poiner, I., Glaister, J., Pitcher, R., Burridge, C., Wassenberg, T., Gribble, N., Hill, B., Blaber, S., Milton, D., Brewer, D. and Ellis, N. 1998. The environmental effects of prawn trawling in the far northern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: 1991 - 1996. Summary and Introduction, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 23 (Summary).
Ponder, W. 2003. Narrow range endemism in the sea and its implications for conservation. Pp 89-102 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Ponder, W. F., Hutchings, P.A and Chapman, R. 2002. Overview of the Conservation of Australia's marine invertebrates. A report for Environment Australia. http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Priddel, D. 2003. Our seabirds at risk. Pp 73-80 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Recher, H. F. 2003. Foreword. Where land and water meet. Pp iii-vi in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Recher, H. F, Hutchings, P.A and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment: Reconstruction and Restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-41
Reef Water Quality Protection Plan: for catchments adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area 2003. www.thepremier.qld.gov.au/reefwater.
Resource Assessment Commission. 1993 Coastal Zone Inquiry: Final Report, AGPS, Canberra.
Short, A. D. 1993. Beaches Of The New South Wales Coast, Australian Beach Safety and Management Project, Sydney, 358 pp.
Short, A. D. (in press). Australia beach systems - the morphodynamics of wave through tide-dominated beach-dune systems. Journal of Coastal Research SI.
Silva M. E., Gately, E. M. and Desilvestre, I. 1986 A Bibliographic Listing of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas: A Global Survey. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA USA Report WHOI-86-11. 156pp.
Tsamenyi, M., Rose, G. and Castle, A. 2003. International Marine Conservation Law and its Implementation in Australia. Pp 1-17 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, G. 2003. Problems of measuring biodiversity in coastal habitats: a summary of issues. Pp 103-107 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Waples, K. 2003. The role of research in the management of whale watching. Pp 62-72 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Ward, T., Butler, E. and Hill, B. 1998 Environmental Indicators for National State of the Environment Reporting, Estuaries and the Sea, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Zann, L. (ed.) 1995 Our Sea, Our Future: Major Findings of the State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority for the Dept of Environment, Sport and Territories, Ocean Rescue 2000 Program, Canberra.
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References

Adam, P. 2003. Planning for the future of the New South Wales coast: history and science in the quest for certainty. Pp 49-54 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
ASEC. 2001. Coasts and Oceans, Australia State of the Environment Report 2001 ( Theme Report). CSIRO Publishing on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Avery, R. P. 2003. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning - how different are they? Pp 18-40 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Babcock, R. 2003 The New Zealand Marine Reserve Experience: the science behind the politics.Pp 108-119 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Baker J. 2003. A report on the study of land sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. A report prepared by an Intergovernmental Steering Committee to Premiers Department, Queensland Government www.premiers.qld.gov.au/about/reefwater.pdf.
Benkendorff, K. 2002. Potential conservation benefits and problems associated with bioprospecting in the marine environment. Pp 90-100 in A Zoological Revolution. Using native fauna to assist in its own survival, edited by D. Lunney and C. Dickman. Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Brown, I. 2002. Oldest MPA in the world: Royal National Park, New South Wales, Australia. Designated 1879. MPA News, 3(6):5.
Commonwealth of Australia. 1998 Australia's Oceans Policy. Canberra, Australia.
Creese, B. and Breen, D. 2003. Marine Protected Areas in New South Wales, Australia: challenges for research. Pp 120-128 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Day, J., Fernandes, L., Barnett, B., Slegers, S., Kerrigan, B., Breen, D., De'ath, G., Lewis, A., Innes, J. and Oliver, J. 2002. The representative areas program-protecting the biodiversity of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Proceedings of the 9th International Coral Reef Symposium, Bali, Indonesia. Bali. Volume 2: 687-696.
Fabricius, K. E. and De'ath, G. 2001. Biodiversity on the Great Barrier Reef: Large-scale patterns and turbidity-related local loss of soft coral taxa. Pp 127-144 in Oceanographic processes of coral reefs: physical and biological links in the Great Barrier Reef, edited by E. Wolanski. London, CRC Press.
Fairfull, S. and Williams, R. 2003. Pp. 55-61 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Hutchings, P. A., 1990. A review of the effects of trawling on macro benthic epifaunal communities. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 41: 111-120.
Hutchings, P. A. 2000. The challenge to conserve and manage Australia's marine biodiversity. Pacific Conservation Biology 5(4): 242-249.
Hutchings, P. A. 2003. Threatened Species Management: out of its depth for marine invertebrates. Pp 81-88 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Jackson, J. B. C., Kirby, M. X., Berger, W. H., Bjorndal, K. A., Botsford, L. W., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R., Erlandson, J., Estes, J. A., Hughes, T. P., Kidwell, S., Lange, C. B., Lenihan, H. S., Pandolfi, J. M., Peterson, C. H., Steneck, R. S., Tegner, M. J. and Warner, R. R. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-638.
Johannes, R. E. 1981 Words of the Lagoon: Fishing and Marine Lore in the Palau district of Micronesia. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 245pp.
Kelleher G., Bleakley, C. and Wells. S. 1995 A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, The World Bank, IUCN. Washington, DC 4 volumes.
Kenchington, R. 2003. Managing marine environments: an introduction to issues of sustainability, conservation, planning and implementation. Pp 41-48 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Kent, R. 2003 Liquid Sea. Catalogue publication, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney.
Levin, L., Blair, N., De Masters, D., Plaia, G., Fornes, W., Martin, C. and Thomas, C. 1997. Rapid subduction of organic matter by maldanid polychaetes on the North Carolina slope. Journal of Marine Research 55: 595-611.
Lunney, D. 2002. How the environment figured in the 2001 federal election. Australian Zoologist 32: 101-11.
Lunney, D., Pressey, B., Archer, M., Hand, S., Godthelp, H. and Curtin, A. 1997. Integrating ecology and economics: illustrating the need to resolve the conflicts of space and time. Ecological Economics 23: 135-42.
Lunney, D., Dickman, C. and Burgin, S. 2002. A bizarre and threatening process: the by-passing of ecological research when tackling environmental issues. Pp 97-101 in Community and research-based conservation: a clash of paradigms, edited by D. Lunney, C. Dickman and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Myers R. A. and Worm, B. 2003. Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communities. Nature 423: 280-283.
Pitcher, C. R., Burridge, C. Y., Wassenberg, T. J. and Poiner, I. R. 1997. The effects of prawn trawl fisheries on GBR seabed habitats. The Great Barrier Reef - science, use and management. A national conference. Pp 107-123. Townsville, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority.
Poiner, I., Glaister, J., Pitcher, R., Burridge, C., Wassenberg, T., Gribble, N., Hill, B., Blaber, S., Milton, D., Brewer, D. and Ellis, N. 1998. The environmental effects of prawn trawling in the far northern section of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: 1991 - 1996. Summary and Introduction, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. 23 (Summary).
Ponder, W. 2003. Narrow range endemism in the sea and its implications for conservation. Pp 89-102 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Ponder, W. F., Hutchings, P.A and Chapman, R. 2002. Overview of the Conservation of Australia's marine invertebrates. A report for Environment Australia. http://www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/marine_overview/index.html
Priddel, D. 2003. Our seabirds at risk. Pp 73-80 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Recher, H. F. 2003. Foreword. Where land and water meet. Pp iii-vi in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Recher, H. F, Hutchings, P.A and Rosen, S. 1993. The biota of the Hawkesbury-Nepean catchment: Reconstruction and Restoration. Australian Zoologist 29: 3-41
Reef Water Quality Protection Plan: for catchments adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area 2003. www.thepremier.qld.gov.au/reefwater.
Resource Assessment Commission. 1993 Coastal Zone Inquiry: Final Report, AGPS, Canberra.
Short, A. D. 1993. Beaches Of The New South Wales Coast, Australian Beach Safety and Management Project, Sydney, 358 pp.
Short, A. D. (in press). Australia beach systems - the morphodynamics of wave through tide-dominated beach-dune systems. Journal of Coastal Research SI.
Silva M. E., Gately, E. M. and Desilvestre, I. 1986 A Bibliographic Listing of Coastal and Marine Protected Areas: A Global Survey. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA USA Report WHOI-86-11. 156pp.
Tsamenyi, M., Rose, G. and Castle, A. 2003. International Marine Conservation Law and its Implementation in Australia. Pp 1-17 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Underwood, A. J. and Chapman, G. 2003. Problems of measuring biodiversity in coastal habitats: a summary of issues. Pp 103-107 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Waples, K. 2003. The role of research in the management of whale watching. Pp 62-72 in Conserving Marine Environments. Out of sight, out of mind, edited by P. Hutchings and D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Ward, T., Butler, E. and Hill, B. 1998 Environmental Indicators for National State of the Environment Reporting, Estuaries and the Sea, Environment Australia, Canberra, ACT.
Zann, L. (ed.) 1995 Our Sea, Our Future: Major Findings of the State of the Marine Environment Report for Australia. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority for the Dept of Environment, Sport and Territories, Ocean Rescue 2000 Program, Canberra.
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