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Kings Park is a 400 ha reserve near the centre of the City of Perth, Western Australia. Two-hundred and sixtyseven hectares of the park remain as native vegetation and the park has a rich flora and fauna. Contributing importantly to the naturalness of Kings Park is its birdlife with more than 80 species having been recorded within the park's boundaries. Despite the large amount of native vegetation, Kings Park is not pristine and has been changed in many ways by human activities since the settlement of Perth by Europeans in 1829. These changes to the park, as well as changes to the urban matrix in which the park is found, coupled with regional changes outside the urban environment, have produced a dynamic and changing avifauna. Census data are available for a transect through Kings Park from 1928 to 2002. Between 1928 and 2002, 61 species of birds, excluding waterbirds, were recorded along the transect. Of these, 20 % increased in abundance and 40 % decreased with 10 species proceeding to local extinction. Since 1928, Kings Park and the urban landscape of Perth has been increasingly dominated by large nectar-feeding and seed-eating birds. Small insectivores, particularly ground and shrub foragers, have declined in abundance or become locally extinct. Despite the array of changes in the avifauna, the birds of Kings Park are as rich and probably as abundant as they were in 1928 when censuses commenced. The avifauna is just different. Keeping birds in Kings Park and the urban environment requires no special attention. However, if small birds and insectivores are desired, changes need to be made not only to the management of the park, but to the way vegetation in the urban matrix is managed. Foremost among the changes needed is the progressive replacement of exotic trees and shrubs along roads and in parks and gardens with indigenous species and the creation of complex foliage structures. This is necessary to foster an abundant arthropod fauna for insectivores to feed upon and to provide the kinds of habitats such birds require. Whether such changes are essential or even desirable depends on the reasons why people want birds about them in the city and suburbs. It may be that it is only important to have birds and not important as to which species are represented.

Anonymous. 1957. Kings Park as an indigenous park: a natural history appraisal. Western Australian Naturalist 6: 25-53.
Baird, A. M. 1977. Regeneration after fire in Kings Park, Western Australia. Journal Royal Society of Western Australia 60: 1-22.
Beard, J. S. 1967. Natural woodland in Kings Park, Perth. Western Australian Naturalist 10: 77-84.
Bennett, E. M. 1985. Kings Park Plants: A Guide to Naming the Bushland Plants. E. M. Bennett, 2nd ed.
Bhullar, S., Majer, J. 2000. Arthropods on street trees: a food resource for wildlife. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 171-173.
Catterall, C. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by Daniel Lunney and Shelley Burgin, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Evelegh, N. C., Majer, J. D. and Recher, H. F. 2001. The effects of reducing bird predation on canopy arthropods of Marri Eucalyptus calophylla saplings on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 84: 13-21.
Green, R. J., Catterall, C. P. and Jones, D. N. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89: 216-222.
Hopper, S. 1996. Bushfire. Newsletter of the Friends of Kings Park, Issue No. 13, pp. 1-3.
How, R., Dell J. 1993. Vertebrate fauna of the Perth Metropolitan Region: consequences of a modified environment. pp. 28-47 in Urban Bushland Management. Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Western Australia.
Majer, J. D., Recher, H. F., Graham, R., Watson, A. 2001. The Potential of Revegetation Programs to Encourage Invertebrates and Insectivorous Birds. School of Environmental Biology, Curtin University, Bulletin No. 20, 32 pp.
Majer, J. D., Recher, H. F., Keals, N. 2000. Canopy arthropod faunas in fragmented agricultural landscapes. pp. 235-247 in Temperate Eucalypt Woodlands in Australia, edited by R. J. Hobbs, C. J. Yates. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Radho-Toly, S., Majer, J. D., Yates, C. 2001. Impact of fire on leaf nutrients, arthropod fauna and herbivory of native and exotic eucalypts in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 500-506.
Ralph, C. J., Scott, J. M. (eds) 1981. Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology 6, Cooper Ornithological Society.
Recher, H. F. 1988. Counting terrestrial birds: use and application of census procedures in Australia. Australian Zoological Reviews 1: 25-45.
Recher, H. F. 1997. Impact of wildfire on the avifauna of Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 24: 745-761.
Recher, H. F., Davis, W. E. 1998. Foraging profile of a wandoo woodland avifauna during spring. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 514-28.
Recher, H. F. and Davis, W. E. 2002. Foraging profile of a Salmon Gum woodland avifauna in Western Australia. J. Royal Society of Western Australia 85(2): 103-111.
Recher, H. F., Davis, W. E., Calver, M. 2002. Resource partitioning and the comparative foraging ecology of five species of ground-pouncing birds in Western Australian eucalypt woodlands. Ornithological Science 1: 29-40.
Recher, H. F., Majer, J. D., Ganesh, S. 1996. Eucalypts, arthropods and birds: on the relation between foliar nutrients and species richness. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 177-196.
Recher, H. F., Serventy, D. L. 1991. Long term changes in the relative abundances of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5: 90-102.
Serventy, D. L. 1938. The relative abundance of birds illustrated with reference to King's Park, Perth. Emu 37: 269-273.
Serventy, D. L. 1948. The birds of the Swan River District, Western Australia. Emu 47: 241-286.
Serventy, D. L., Whittell, H. M. 1962. Birds of Western Australia. Paterson Brokensha, Perth. 3rd ed.
Sewell, S. R. and Catterall, C. P. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: their effects on birds in southeast Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-63.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., Recher, H. F. 1997. Impact and Response: A Review of the Effects of Fire on the Australian Avifauna. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 183-205
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References

Anonymous. 1957. Kings Park as an indigenous park: a natural history appraisal. Western Australian Naturalist 6: 25-53.
Baird, A. M. 1977. Regeneration after fire in Kings Park, Western Australia. Journal Royal Society of Western Australia 60: 1-22.
Beard, J. S. 1967. Natural woodland in Kings Park, Perth. Western Australian Naturalist 10: 77-84.
Bennett, E. M. 1985. Kings Park Plants: A Guide to Naming the Bushland Plants. E. M. Bennett, 2nd ed.
Bhullar, S., Majer, J. 2000. Arthropods on street trees: a food resource for wildlife. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 171-173.
Catterall, C. 2004. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by Daniel Lunney and Shelley Burgin, Royal Zoological Society of NSW, Mosman, NSW.
Evelegh, N. C., Majer, J. D. and Recher, H. F. 2001. The effects of reducing bird predation on canopy arthropods of Marri Eucalyptus calophylla saplings on the Swan Coastal Plain, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 84: 13-21.
Green, R. J., Catterall, C. P. and Jones, D. N. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89: 216-222.
Hopper, S. 1996. Bushfire. Newsletter of the Friends of Kings Park, Issue No. 13, pp. 1-3.
How, R., Dell J. 1993. Vertebrate fauna of the Perth Metropolitan Region: consequences of a modified environment. pp. 28-47 in Urban Bushland Management. Australian Institute of Urban Studies, Western Australia.
Majer, J. D., Recher, H. F., Graham, R., Watson, A. 2001. The Potential of Revegetation Programs to Encourage Invertebrates and Insectivorous Birds. School of Environmental Biology, Curtin University, Bulletin No. 20, 32 pp.
Majer, J. D., Recher, H. F., Keals, N. 2000. Canopy arthropod faunas in fragmented agricultural landscapes. pp. 235-247 in Temperate Eucalypt Woodlands in Australia, edited by R. J. Hobbs, C. J. Yates. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton.
Radho-Toly, S., Majer, J. D., Yates, C. 2001. Impact of fire on leaf nutrients, arthropod fauna and herbivory of native and exotic eucalypts in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Austral Ecology 26: 500-506.
Ralph, C. J., Scott, J. M. (eds) 1981. Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology 6, Cooper Ornithological Society.
Recher, H. F. 1988. Counting terrestrial birds: use and application of census procedures in Australia. Australian Zoological Reviews 1: 25-45.
Recher, H. F. 1997. Impact of wildfire on the avifauna of Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Wildlife Research 24: 745-761.
Recher, H. F., Davis, W. E. 1998. Foraging profile of a wandoo woodland avifauna during spring. Australian Journal of Ecology 23: 514-28.
Recher, H. F. and Davis, W. E. 2002. Foraging profile of a Salmon Gum woodland avifauna in Western Australia. J. Royal Society of Western Australia 85(2): 103-111.
Recher, H. F., Davis, W. E., Calver, M. 2002. Resource partitioning and the comparative foraging ecology of five species of ground-pouncing birds in Western Australian eucalypt woodlands. Ornithological Science 1: 29-40.
Recher, H. F., Majer, J. D., Ganesh, S. 1996. Eucalypts, arthropods and birds: on the relation between foliar nutrients and species richness. Forest Ecology and Management 85: 177-196.
Recher, H. F., Serventy, D. L. 1991. Long term changes in the relative abundances of birds in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Conservation Biology 5: 90-102.
Serventy, D. L. 1938. The relative abundance of birds illustrated with reference to King's Park, Perth. Emu 37: 269-273.
Serventy, D. L. 1948. The birds of the Swan River District, Western Australia. Emu 47: 241-286.
Serventy, D. L., Whittell, H. M. 1962. Birds of Western Australia. Paterson Brokensha, Perth. 3rd ed.
Sewell, S. R. and Catterall, C. P. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: their effects on birds in southeast Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-63.
Woinarski, J. C. Z., Recher, H. F. 1997. Impact and Response: A Review of the Effects of Fire on the Australian Avifauna. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 183-205
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