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This paper assesses the effects of vegetation retention and garden planting on birds in the rapidly urbanising greater Brisbane region. Formerly forested areas that are cleared and urbanised show a large reduction in the number of small-bodied species, and a minor increase in the number of introduced species. Very small (<5 ha) remnants of eucalypt forest also lose small-bodied native birds, and additionally show increases in larger-bodied species. Suburbs that are better-vegetated resemble the very small remnants: they have not re-acquired small-bodied native species, but have more large species. Analyses of individual species' abundances revealed three distinct species groups. “Aussi Icons” are large-bodied, often ground-feeding species, that characterise well-vegetated suburbs and 1-2 ha remnants of eucalypt forest (“bushlots”). “New Arrivals” are a group of mixed habits that characterise poorly-vegetated suburban areas. “Neglected Foliphiles” are small-bodied, foliage-feeding species that are diverse and common in large eucalypt forest remnants but largely absent from small remnants and well-vegetated suburbs. One species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala, is important in aggressively excluding the small foliage-feeding birds from partly-vegetated areas and small bushlots. The abundance of noisy miners was negatively correlated with the number of small-bodied bird species, across all well-vegetated sites, and also within individual types of land cover. Noisy miners occur throughout subtropical and temperate eastern Australia. Planting of scattered eucalypts, small patches, and cultivars of nectar-rich native plant species can encourage noisy miner occupancy, and hence have a different effect on a garden's bird diversity from that intended. I discuss likely avifaunal changes over time, and the implications for land use planning, public education, and spatial scaling in urban design.

Anon 1995 Local Greening Plans. A Guide For Vegetation and Biodiversity Management. Greening Australia, Canberra.
Bentley, J. M. 1994 Bird Use of Bushland, Corridors, and Linear Remnants in South-east Queensland. B.Sc. Hons. Thesis, Griffith University: Brisbane.
Bentley, J. M. and Catterall, C. P. 1997. The use of bushland, corridors and linear remnants by birds in south east Queensland, Australia. Conservation Biology 11: 1173-89.
Blakers, M., Davies, S. J. J. F. and Reilly, P. N. 1984 The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Catterall, C. P. 1991. On the importance of watching birds. Wildlife Australia 28: 3-5.
Catterall, C. P., Green, R. J., and Jones, D. N. 1989. The occurrence of birds in relation to plants in a subtropical city. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 289-305.
Catterall, C. P., Green, R. J., and Jones, D. N. 1991. Habitat use by birds across a forest-suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. Pp 247-58 in Nature Conservation 2, the Role of Corridors, edited by D. A. Saunders and R. H. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Catterall, C.P and Kingston, M. 1993a Remnant Bushland of South East Queensland in the 1990's: its Distribution, Loss, Ecological Consequences and Future Prospects. Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Griffith University and Brisbane City Council. 97 pp.
Catterall, C. P. and Kingston, M. 1993b. Human populations, bushland distribution in south eastern Queensland and the implications for birds. Pp.105-22 in Birds and Their Habitats: Status and Conservation in Queensland, edited by C. P. Catterall, P. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society, Brisbane.
Catterall, C. P., Kingston, M. B., and Park, K. 1997a. Use of remnant forest habitat by birds during winter in subtropical Australia: patterns and processes. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 262-74.
Catterall, C. P., Storey, R. J. and Kingston, M. B. 1997b. Reality versus rhetoric: a case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pp. 367-77 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Catterall, C. P., Kingston, M. B., Park, K., and Sewell, S. 1998. Effects of clearing lowland eucalypt forests on a regional bird assemblage. Biological Conservation 84: 65-81.
Catterall, C. P. Piper, S., and Goodall, K. 2002. Noisy miner irruptions associated with land use by humans in south east Queensland: causes, effects and management implications. Pp. 117-127 in Landscape Health of Queensland, edited by A. Franks, J. Playford, & A. Shapcott. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane.
Dow, D. D. 1977. Indiscriminate interspecific aggression leading to almost sole occupancy of space by a single species of bird. Emu 77: 115-21.
Evans, R., Catterall, C. P. and Brumm, G. V. 1997. The habitat value of extremely small bushland remnants to birds in Brisbane. Sunbird 27: 38-44.
Ferrier, T., White, G. and Birbeck, J. 1993. Planning for bird conservation in urban Queensland. Pp.195-6 in Birds and Their Habitats: Status and Conservation in Queensland edited by C. P. Catterall, P. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society, Brisbane.
Green, R. J. and Catterall, C. P. 1998. The effects of forest clearing and regeneration on the fauna of Wivenhoe Park, south east Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 677-90.
Green, R. J., Catterall, C. P. and Jones, D. N. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89: 216-22.
Grey, M. J., Clarke, M. F. & Loyn, R. H. 1998. Influence of the Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala on avian diversity and abundance in remnant grey box woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 55-69.
Hoskin E. S., Hindwood, K. A. and McGill, A. R. 1991 The Birds of Sydney. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton
Hudson, K., Catterall, C. P., McNamara, S. and Kingston, M. B. 1997. How useful are small but lightly treed suburban parks for forest birds in Brisbane? Sunbird 27: 57-64.
Mac Nally, R., Bennett, A. F. and Horrocks, G. 2000. Forecasting the impacts of habitat fragmentation. Evaluation of species-specific predictions of the impact of habitat fragmentation on birds in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia. Biological Conservation 95: 7-29.
Major, R., Christie, F. J. and Gowing, G. 2001. Influence of remnant and landscape attributes on Australian woodland bird communities. Biological Conservation 102: 47-66.
Martin, T. G. and Catterall, C. P. 2001. Do fragmented coastal heathlands have habitat value to birds in eastern Australia? Wildlife Research 28: 1-15.
Landsberg, J., Morton, S., and James, C. 1999. A comparison of the diversity and indicator potential of arthropods, vertebrates and plants in arid rangelands across Australia. Pp. 111-20 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Low, T. 1994. Invasion of the savage honeyeaters. ANH 24/10: 27-34.
Low, T. 2002 The New Nature. Penguin Books: Camberwell.
Loyn, R. H. 1987. Effects of patch area and habitat on bird abundances, species numbers and tree health in fragmented Victorian forests. Pp 65-77 in Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation edited by D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. Burbidge and A. J. M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Oertel, A. S. 1998 Use of Small Eucalypt Forest Remnants by Birds in South East Queensland. B. Sc. (Hons) thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane.
Piper, S. D. and Catterall, C. P. 2003. A particular case and a general pattern: hyperaggressive behaviour by one species may mediate avifaunal decreases in fragmented Australian forests. Oikos 101: 602-14.
Park, K. 1994 Aspects of Migration and Residency in Birds of Eucalypt Forests in South-east Queensland. B.Sc. Hons. Thesis, Griffith University: Brisbane.
Pizzey, G. 1991 A Garden of Birds. Attracting Birds to Australian Gardens. Harper Collins Publishers, North Ryde.
Recher, H. F. 1991. The conservation and management of eucalypt forest birds: resource requirements for nesting and foraging. Pp. 25-34 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney.
Ryan, M. (ed.). 1995 Wildlife of Greater Brisbane. Queensland Museum, Brisbane.
Sewell, S. and Catterall, C. P. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: their impacts on birds in south east Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-64.
Weins, J. A. 1989 The Ecology of Bird Communities.Volumes 1 and 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Woodall, P. F. 1996. Limits to the distribution of the House Sparrow Passer domesticus in suburban Brisbane, Australia. Ibis 138: 337-40.
Woodall, P. F. 2002. The Birds Queensland garden bird survey, 1999-2000. Sunbird 32: 37-51.
Veerman, P. A. 2002 Canberra Birds: a Report on the First 18 Years of the Garden Bird Survey. Canberra Ornithologists Group, Canberra.
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References

Anon 1995 Local Greening Plans. A Guide For Vegetation and Biodiversity Management. Greening Australia, Canberra.
Bentley, J. M. 1994 Bird Use of Bushland, Corridors, and Linear Remnants in South-east Queensland. B.Sc. Hons. Thesis, Griffith University: Brisbane.
Bentley, J. M. and Catterall, C. P. 1997. The use of bushland, corridors and linear remnants by birds in south east Queensland, Australia. Conservation Biology 11: 1173-89.
Blakers, M., Davies, S. J. J. F. and Reilly, P. N. 1984 The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Catterall, C. P. 1991. On the importance of watching birds. Wildlife Australia 28: 3-5.
Catterall, C. P., Green, R. J., and Jones, D. N. 1989. The occurrence of birds in relation to plants in a subtropical city. Australian Wildlife Research 16: 289-305.
Catterall, C. P., Green, R. J., and Jones, D. N. 1991. Habitat use by birds across a forest-suburb interface in Brisbane: implications for corridors. Pp 247-58 in Nature Conservation 2, the Role of Corridors, edited by D. A. Saunders and R. H. Hobbs. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Catterall, C.P and Kingston, M. 1993a Remnant Bushland of South East Queensland in the 1990's: its Distribution, Loss, Ecological Consequences and Future Prospects. Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Griffith University and Brisbane City Council. 97 pp.
Catterall, C. P. and Kingston, M. 1993b. Human populations, bushland distribution in south eastern Queensland and the implications for birds. Pp.105-22 in Birds and Their Habitats: Status and Conservation in Queensland, edited by C. P. Catterall, P. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society, Brisbane.
Catterall, C. P., Kingston, M. B., and Park, K. 1997a. Use of remnant forest habitat by birds during winter in subtropical Australia: patterns and processes. Pacific Conservation Biology 3: 262-74.
Catterall, C. P., Storey, R. J. and Kingston, M. B. 1997b. Reality versus rhetoric: a case study monitoring regional deforestation. Pp. 367-77 in Conservation Outside Nature Reserves, edited by P. Hale and D. Lamb. Centre for Conservation Biology, University of Queensland, Brisbane.
Catterall, C. P., Kingston, M. B., Park, K., and Sewell, S. 1998. Effects of clearing lowland eucalypt forests on a regional bird assemblage. Biological Conservation 84: 65-81.
Catterall, C. P. Piper, S., and Goodall, K. 2002. Noisy miner irruptions associated with land use by humans in south east Queensland: causes, effects and management implications. Pp. 117-127 in Landscape Health of Queensland, edited by A. Franks, J. Playford, & A. Shapcott. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane.
Dow, D. D. 1977. Indiscriminate interspecific aggression leading to almost sole occupancy of space by a single species of bird. Emu 77: 115-21.
Evans, R., Catterall, C. P. and Brumm, G. V. 1997. The habitat value of extremely small bushland remnants to birds in Brisbane. Sunbird 27: 38-44.
Ferrier, T., White, G. and Birbeck, J. 1993. Planning for bird conservation in urban Queensland. Pp.195-6 in Birds and Their Habitats: Status and Conservation in Queensland edited by C. P. Catterall, P. Driscoll, K. Hulsman, and A. Taplin. Queensland Ornithological Society, Brisbane.
Green, R. J. and Catterall, C. P. 1998. The effects of forest clearing and regeneration on the fauna of Wivenhoe Park, south east Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 677-90.
Green, R. J., Catterall, C. P. and Jones, D. N. 1989. Foraging and other behaviour of birds in subtropical and temperate suburban habitats. Emu 89: 216-22.
Grey, M. J., Clarke, M. F. & Loyn, R. H. 1998. Influence of the Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala on avian diversity and abundance in remnant grey box woodland. Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 55-69.
Hoskin E. S., Hindwood, K. A. and McGill, A. R. 1991 The Birds of Sydney. Surrey Beatty and Sons Pty Ltd, Chipping Norton
Hudson, K., Catterall, C. P., McNamara, S. and Kingston, M. B. 1997. How useful are small but lightly treed suburban parks for forest birds in Brisbane? Sunbird 27: 57-64.
Mac Nally, R., Bennett, A. F. and Horrocks, G. 2000. Forecasting the impacts of habitat fragmentation. Evaluation of species-specific predictions of the impact of habitat fragmentation on birds in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia. Biological Conservation 95: 7-29.
Major, R., Christie, F. J. and Gowing, G. 2001. Influence of remnant and landscape attributes on Australian woodland bird communities. Biological Conservation 102: 47-66.
Martin, T. G. and Catterall, C. P. 2001. Do fragmented coastal heathlands have habitat value to birds in eastern Australia? Wildlife Research 28: 1-15.
Landsberg, J., Morton, S., and James, C. 1999. A comparison of the diversity and indicator potential of arthropods, vertebrates and plants in arid rangelands across Australia. Pp. 111-20 in The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates edited by W. Ponder and D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Low, T. 1994. Invasion of the savage honeyeaters. ANH 24/10: 27-34.
Low, T. 2002 The New Nature. Penguin Books: Camberwell.
Loyn, R. H. 1987. Effects of patch area and habitat on bird abundances, species numbers and tree health in fragmented Victorian forests. Pp 65-77 in Nature Conservation: The Role of Remnants of Native Vegetation edited by D. A. Saunders, G. W. Arnold, A. Burbidge and A. J. M. Hopkins. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Oertel, A. S. 1998 Use of Small Eucalypt Forest Remnants by Birds in South East Queensland. B. Sc. (Hons) thesis, Griffith University, Brisbane.
Piper, S. D. and Catterall, C. P. 2003. A particular case and a general pattern: hyperaggressive behaviour by one species may mediate avifaunal decreases in fragmented Australian forests. Oikos 101: 602-14.
Park, K. 1994 Aspects of Migration and Residency in Birds of Eucalypt Forests in South-east Queensland. B.Sc. Hons. Thesis, Griffith University: Brisbane.
Pizzey, G. 1991 A Garden of Birds. Attracting Birds to Australian Gardens. Harper Collins Publishers, North Ryde.
Recher, H. F. 1991. The conservation and management of eucalypt forest birds: resource requirements for nesting and foraging. Pp. 25-34 in Conservation of Australia's Forest Fauna edited by D. Lunney. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Sydney.
Ryan, M. (ed.). 1995 Wildlife of Greater Brisbane. Queensland Museum, Brisbane.
Sewell, S. and Catterall, C. P. 1998. Bushland modification and styles of urban development: their impacts on birds in south east Queensland. Wildlife Research 25: 41-64.
Weins, J. A. 1989 The Ecology of Bird Communities.Volumes 1 and 2. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Woodall, P. F. 1996. Limits to the distribution of the House Sparrow Passer domesticus in suburban Brisbane, Australia. Ibis 138: 337-40.
Woodall, P. F. 2002. The Birds Queensland garden bird survey, 1999-2000. Sunbird 32: 37-51.
Veerman, P. A. 2002 Canberra Birds: a Report on the First 18 Years of the Garden Bird Survey. Canberra Ornithologists Group, Canberra.
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