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The urban remnants of Sydney support a unique and diverse fauna and flora. Many are of high conservation value, despite being subjected to a range of anthropogenic disturbances that seemingly compromise their biodiversity value. We tested a suite of hypotheses associated with habitat fragmentation and urbanisation. We found that the composition of invertebrate fauna of small remnants was significantly different to that in larger continuous areas of similar vegetation, with higher trophic levels (predators and parasitoids) being most affected. Subsequent surveys on Eucalyptus botryoides revealed higher levels of herbivory in urban remnants, consistent with the hypothesis that herbivores in these remnants were released from pressures of parasitism and predation. The importance of higher trophic levels in regulating herbivory was demonstrated in field experiments excluding avian and insect predators from branches being used by a dominant herbivore on E. botryoides, Doratifera casta (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The declining state of urban remnants may be linked to a disruption of ecological processes associated with the loss of species from higher trophic levels, releasing herbivore populations from pressures of predation and parasitism. While this may be perceived as compromising the ecological integrity of urban remnants, it may also be an unavoidable consequence of habitat fragmentation and a factor that needs to be incorporated in the future management goals of urban remnants.

Anonymous. 1997 Overview and recommendations of Western Sydney urban bushland biodiversity survey. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Australian State of the Environment Committee. 2001 Australia State of the Environment 2001. Independent report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment and Heritage, CSIRO publishing on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Atmar, W. and Patterson, B. D. 1993. The measure of order and disorder in the distribution of species in fragmented habitat. Oecologia 96: 373-382.
Benson, D and Howell, J. 1990 Taken for granted. The bushland of Sydney and its suburbs.Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst.
Benson, D. H. and Howell, J. 1994. The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100 000 map sheet. Cunninghamia 3: 677-1004.
Benson, J. S. and Redpath, P. A. 1997. The nature of pre- European native vegetation in south-eastern Australia: a critique of Ryan, D.G, Ryan, J. R. and Starr, B. J. (1995) the Australian Landscape - Observations of Explorers and Early Settlers. Cunninghamia 5: 285-328.
Banks, P. B. 2004. Population viability analysis in urban wildlife management: modelling management options for Sydney's quarantined Bandicoots. Pp 70-77 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Blaire, R. B. and Launer, A. E. 1997. Butterfly diversity and human land use: species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biological Conservation 80: 113-125.
Bolger, D. T., Suarez, A. V., Crooks, K. R., Morrison, S. A. and Case, T. J. 2000. Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in southern California: area, age and edge effects. Ecological Applications 10: 1230-1248.
Burrows, S. 1999. Dieback of Eucalyptus botryoides in urban forest remnants. Unpublished MSc (Environmental Science), The University of Sydney, Sydney.
Cam, E., Nichols, J. D., Sauer, J. E., Hines, J. E. and Flather, C. H. 2000. Relative species richness and community completeness: birds and urbanization in the mid-Atlantic states. Ecological applications 10: 1196-1210.
Carolin, R. and Tindale, M. 1994 Flora of the Sydney region from the Hunter to the Shoalhaven Rivres and inland to the Great Divide. Reed: Chatswood.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A. 1996 Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Science Pty Ltd: Carlton.
Clarke, M. F. and Schedvin, N. 1999. Removal of bell miners Manorina melanophrys from Eucalyptus radiata forest and its effect on avian diversity, psyllids and tree health. Biological Conservation 88: 111-120.
Davies, K. F. and Margules, C. R. 1998. Effects of habitat fragmentation on carabid beetles: experimental evidence. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 460-471.
Davies, R. and Christie, J. 2001. Rehabilitating Western Sydney's bushland: Processes needed for sustained recovery. Ecological management and restoration 2: 167-178.
Davis, B. N. K., 1982. Habitat diversity and invertebrates in urban areas. Pp. 49-63 in Urban ecology edited by R. Bornkamn, J. A. Lee, and M. R. D. Seaward. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford.
De Vries, H. H., De Boer, P. J. and Van Dijk, T. S. 1996. Ground beetle species in heathland fragments in relation to survival, dispersal, and habitat preference. Oecologia (Berlin) 107: 332-342.
Debinski, D. M. and Holt, R. D. 2000. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conservation Biology 14: 342-355.
Dial, R. and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Experimental removal of insectivores from rainforest canopy: direct and indirect effects. Ecology 76: 1821-1834.
Didham, R. K. 1998. Altered leaf-litter decomposition rates in tropical forest fragments. Oecologia 116: 397-406.
Didham, R. K. Ghazoul, J., Stork, N. E. and Davis, A. J., 1996. Insects in fragmented forests: A functional approach. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 255-260.
Edmonds, A and Webb, J. B. 1986 Sydney's sandstone plants: a beginner's guide to native plants. University of New South Wales Press: Kensington.
Fairley, A. 2001 Wildflowers of Sydney. Bloomings Books: Melbourne.
Fairley, A. and Moore, P. 1995 Native plants of the Sydney district, An identification guide. Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd: Kenthurst (in association with The Society for Growing Australian Plants-NSW Ltd: Sydney).
Freestone, R. 2000. Planning Sydney: Historical trajectories and contemporary debates. Pp. 119-143 in Sydney: Emergence of a world city, edited by J. Connell. Oxford University Press: Melbourne.
Gibb, H. and Hochuli, D. F. 1999. Nesting analysis of arthropod assemblages in habitat fragments in the Sydney region. Pp. 77-81 in The other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates edited by W. Ponderand D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Gibb, H. and Hochuli, D. F. 2002. Habitat fragmentation in an urban environment: large and small fragments support different arthropod assemblages. Biological Conservation 106: 91-100.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Frogs and reptiles of the Sydney region. University of New South Wales Press: Kensington, NSW.
Gunnarsson, B. and Hake, M. 1999. Bird predation affects canopy-living arthropods in city parks. Canandian Journal of Zoology 77: 1419-1428.
Harrison, S. and Bruna, E. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and large-scale conservation: what do we know for sure? Ecography 22: 225-232.
Heatwole, H. and Lowman, M. 1986 Dieback: Death of an Australian Landscape. Reed Books: Sydney.
Howell, J. and Benson, D. H. 2000 Sydney's bushland: More than meets the eye. Royal Botanic Gardens: Sydney.
Kaplan, S. 1995. The urban forest as a source of psychological well-being. Pp. 101-108 in Urban Forest Landscapes: integrating multidisciplinary perspectives, edited by G. A. Bradley. University of Washington Press: Seattle.
Kendle, T. and Forbes, S. 1997 Urban Nature Conservation. Spon: London.
King, S. A. and Buckney, R. T. 2002. Invasion of exotic plants in nutrient-enriched urban bushland. Austral Ecology, 27: 573-583.
Kleiman, D. G., Reading, R. P., Miller, B. J., Clark, T. W., Scott, M., Robinson, J., Wallace, R. L., Cabin, R. J. and Felleman, F. 2000. Improving the evaluation of conservation programs. Conservation Biology 14: 356-365.
Knick, S. T. and Rotenberry, J. T. 2000. Ghosts of habitats past: Contribution of landscape change to current habitats used by shrubland birds. Ecology 81: 220-227.
Kremen, C., Colwell, R. K., Erwin, T. L., Murphy, D. D., Noss, R. F. and Sanjayan, M. A. 1993. Terrestrial arthropod assemblages: Their use in conservation planning. Conservation Biology 7: 796-808.
Landsberg J. 1990a. Dieback of rural eucalypts: Does insect herbivory relate to dietary quality of tree foliage? Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 73-87.
Landsberg J. 1990b. Dieback of rural eucalypts: Response of foliar dietary quality and herbivory to defoliation. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 89-96.
Landsberg J. 1990c. Dieback of rural eucalypts: the effect of stress on the nutritional quality of foliage. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 97-107.
Leonard, G. 1998 Eucalypts: a bushwalker's guide. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington, NSW.
Lunney, D., Dickman, C. R., and Burgin, S. (eds). 2002 A clash of paradigms: community and research-based conservation. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Major, R. E., Christie, F. J., Gowing, G. and Ivison, T. J. 1999. Age structure and density of red-capped robin populations vary with habitat size and shape. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 901-908.
Margules, C. R. 1992. The Wog Wog fragmentation experiment. Environmental Conservation 19: 316-325.
Marquis, R. J. 1984. Leaf herbivores decrease fitness of a tropical plant. Science 226: 537-539.
Marquis, R. J. and Whelan, C. J. 1994. Insectivorous birds increase growth of white oak through consumption of leafchewing insects. Ecology 75: 2007-2014.
McDonald, T., Wale, K. and Bear, V. 2002. Restoring Blue Gum High Forest: lessons from Sheldon Forest. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 15-27.
McDonnell, M. J., Pickett, S. T. A., and Pouyat, R. V. 1993. The application of the ecological gradient paradigm to the study of urban effects. Pp. 175-189 in Humans as components of ecosystems, edited by M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett. Springer: New York.
McGeoch, M. A. and Chown, S. L. 1997. Impact of urbanization on a gall-inhabiting Lepidoptera assemblage: the importance of reserves in urban areas. Biodiversity and conservation 6: 979-993.
Miyashita, T., Shinkai, A. and Chida, T. 1998. The effects of forest fragmentation on web spider communities in urban areas. Biological Conservation 86: 357-364.
Nuckols, M. S. and Connor, E. F. 1995. Do trees in urban or ornamental plantings receive more damage by insects than trees in natural forests? Ecological Entomology 20: 253-260.
Old, K. M., 2000. Eucalypt diseases of complex etiology. Pp. 411-425 in Diseases and pathogens of Eucalypts. CSIRO publishing: Melbourne.
Ozanne, C. M. P., Hambler, C., Foggo, A., and Speight, M. R. 1997. The significance of edge effects in the management of forests for invertebrate biodiversity. Pp. 534-550 in Canopy arthropods edited by N. E. Stork, J. Adis and R. K. Didham. Chapman and Hall: London.
Panzer, R. and Schwartz, M. W. 1998. Effectiveness of a vegetation-based approach to insect conservation. Conservation Biology 12: 693-702.
Port, G. R. and Thompson, J. R. 1980. Outbreaks of insect herbivores on plants along motorways in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 649-656.
Reader, T. and Hochuli, D. F. 2003. Understanding gregariousness in a larval lepidopteran: the roles of host plant, predation and microclimate. Ecological Entomology in press.
Recher, H. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Roberts, P. 1993 Bird watchers guide to the Sydney region. Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd: Kenthurst, NSW.
Robinson, G. R., Holt, R. D., Gaines, M. S., Hamburg, S. P., Johnson, M. L., Fitch, H. S., and Matinko, E. A. 1992. Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation. Science 257:
Rosenheim, J. A. 1998. Higher-order predators and the regulation of insect herbivore populations. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 421-447.
Ruszczyk, A. 1996. Spatial patterns in pupal mortality in urban palm caterpillars. Oecologia 107: 356-363.
Stone, C. 2000. Assessment and monitoring of decline and dieback of forest eucalypts in relation to ecologically sustainable forest management: a review with a case study. Australian Forestry 62: 51-58.
Suarez, A. V., Bolger, D. T., and Case, T. J. 1998. The effects of fragmentation and invasion on the native ant community in coastal southern California. Ecology 79: 2041-2056.
Van der Ree. R. 2004. The impact of urbanisation on the mammals of Melbourne - do atlas records tell the whole story or just some of the chapters? Pp. 195-204 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Ward, S. and Close, R. 2004. Southern Sydney's urban koalas: community research and education at Campbelltown. Pp. 144-54 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
White T. C. R. 1984. The abundance of insect herbivores in relation to the availability of nitrogen in stressed food plants. Oecologia 63: 90-105.
Woodford, J. 2000. Harbour forests left bare by mystery disease. Sydney Morning Herald, August 2, 2000.
Yen, A. and Butcher, R. 1997 An overview of the conservation of non-marine invertebrates in Australia. Environment Australia, Department of the Environment, Canberra.
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References

Anonymous. 1997 Overview and recommendations of Western Sydney urban bushland biodiversity survey. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Australian State of the Environment Committee. 2001 Australia State of the Environment 2001. Independent report to the Commonwealth Minister for the Environment and Heritage, CSIRO publishing on behalf of the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra.
Atmar, W. and Patterson, B. D. 1993. The measure of order and disorder in the distribution of species in fragmented habitat. Oecologia 96: 373-382.
Benson, D and Howell, J. 1990 Taken for granted. The bushland of Sydney and its suburbs.Kangaroo Press: Kenthurst.
Benson, D. H. and Howell, J. 1994. The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100 000 map sheet. Cunninghamia 3: 677-1004.
Benson, J. S. and Redpath, P. A. 1997. The nature of pre- European native vegetation in south-eastern Australia: a critique of Ryan, D.G, Ryan, J. R. and Starr, B. J. (1995) the Australian Landscape - Observations of Explorers and Early Settlers. Cunninghamia 5: 285-328.
Banks, P. B. 2004. Population viability analysis in urban wildlife management: modelling management options for Sydney's quarantined Bandicoots. Pp 70-77 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Blaire, R. B. and Launer, A. E. 1997. Butterfly diversity and human land use: species assemblages along an urban gradient. Biological Conservation 80: 113-125.
Bolger, D. T., Suarez, A. V., Crooks, K. R., Morrison, S. A. and Case, T. J. 2000. Arthropods in urban habitat fragments in southern California: area, age and edge effects. Ecological Applications 10: 1230-1248.
Burrows, S. 1999. Dieback of Eucalyptus botryoides in urban forest remnants. Unpublished MSc (Environmental Science), The University of Sydney, Sydney.
Cam, E., Nichols, J. D., Sauer, J. E., Hines, J. E. and Flather, C. H. 2000. Relative species richness and community completeness: birds and urbanization in the mid-Atlantic states. Ecological applications 10: 1196-1210.
Carolin, R. and Tindale, M. 1994 Flora of the Sydney region from the Hunter to the Shoalhaven Rivres and inland to the Great Divide. Reed: Chatswood.
Caughley, G. and Gunn, A. 1996 Conservation biology in theory and practice. Blackwell Science Pty Ltd: Carlton.
Clarke, M. F. and Schedvin, N. 1999. Removal of bell miners Manorina melanophrys from Eucalyptus radiata forest and its effect on avian diversity, psyllids and tree health. Biological Conservation 88: 111-120.
Davies, K. F. and Margules, C. R. 1998. Effects of habitat fragmentation on carabid beetles: experimental evidence. Journal of Animal Ecology 67: 460-471.
Davies, R. and Christie, J. 2001. Rehabilitating Western Sydney's bushland: Processes needed for sustained recovery. Ecological management and restoration 2: 167-178.
Davis, B. N. K., 1982. Habitat diversity and invertebrates in urban areas. Pp. 49-63 in Urban ecology edited by R. Bornkamn, J. A. Lee, and M. R. D. Seaward. Blackwell Scientific Publications: Oxford.
De Vries, H. H., De Boer, P. J. and Van Dijk, T. S. 1996. Ground beetle species in heathland fragments in relation to survival, dispersal, and habitat preference. Oecologia (Berlin) 107: 332-342.
Debinski, D. M. and Holt, R. D. 2000. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments. Conservation Biology 14: 342-355.
Dial, R. and Roughgarden, J. 1995. Experimental removal of insectivores from rainforest canopy: direct and indirect effects. Ecology 76: 1821-1834.
Didham, R. K. 1998. Altered leaf-litter decomposition rates in tropical forest fragments. Oecologia 116: 397-406.
Didham, R. K. Ghazoul, J., Stork, N. E. and Davis, A. J., 1996. Insects in fragmented forests: A functional approach. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 255-260.
Edmonds, A and Webb, J. B. 1986 Sydney's sandstone plants: a beginner's guide to native plants. University of New South Wales Press: Kensington.
Fairley, A. 2001 Wildflowers of Sydney. Bloomings Books: Melbourne.
Fairley, A. and Moore, P. 1995 Native plants of the Sydney district, An identification guide. Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd: Kenthurst (in association with The Society for Growing Australian Plants-NSW Ltd: Sydney).
Freestone, R. 2000. Planning Sydney: Historical trajectories and contemporary debates. Pp. 119-143 in Sydney: Emergence of a world city, edited by J. Connell. Oxford University Press: Melbourne.
Gibb, H. and Hochuli, D. F. 1999. Nesting analysis of arthropod assemblages in habitat fragments in the Sydney region. Pp. 77-81 in The other 99%. The conservation and biodiversity of invertebrates edited by W. Ponderand D. Lunney. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Gibb, H. and Hochuli, D. F. 2002. Habitat fragmentation in an urban environment: large and small fragments support different arthropod assemblages. Biological Conservation 106: 91-100.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Frogs and reptiles of the Sydney region. University of New South Wales Press: Kensington, NSW.
Gunnarsson, B. and Hake, M. 1999. Bird predation affects canopy-living arthropods in city parks. Canandian Journal of Zoology 77: 1419-1428.
Harrison, S. and Bruna, E. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and large-scale conservation: what do we know for sure? Ecography 22: 225-232.
Heatwole, H. and Lowman, M. 1986 Dieback: Death of an Australian Landscape. Reed Books: Sydney.
Howell, J. and Benson, D. H. 2000 Sydney's bushland: More than meets the eye. Royal Botanic Gardens: Sydney.
Kaplan, S. 1995. The urban forest as a source of psychological well-being. Pp. 101-108 in Urban Forest Landscapes: integrating multidisciplinary perspectives, edited by G. A. Bradley. University of Washington Press: Seattle.
Kendle, T. and Forbes, S. 1997 Urban Nature Conservation. Spon: London.
King, S. A. and Buckney, R. T. 2002. Invasion of exotic plants in nutrient-enriched urban bushland. Austral Ecology, 27: 573-583.
Kleiman, D. G., Reading, R. P., Miller, B. J., Clark, T. W., Scott, M., Robinson, J., Wallace, R. L., Cabin, R. J. and Felleman, F. 2000. Improving the evaluation of conservation programs. Conservation Biology 14: 356-365.
Knick, S. T. and Rotenberry, J. T. 2000. Ghosts of habitats past: Contribution of landscape change to current habitats used by shrubland birds. Ecology 81: 220-227.
Kremen, C., Colwell, R. K., Erwin, T. L., Murphy, D. D., Noss, R. F. and Sanjayan, M. A. 1993. Terrestrial arthropod assemblages: Their use in conservation planning. Conservation Biology 7: 796-808.
Landsberg J. 1990a. Dieback of rural eucalypts: Does insect herbivory relate to dietary quality of tree foliage? Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 73-87.
Landsberg J. 1990b. Dieback of rural eucalypts: Response of foliar dietary quality and herbivory to defoliation. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 89-96.
Landsberg J. 1990c. Dieback of rural eucalypts: the effect of stress on the nutritional quality of foliage. Australian Journal of Ecology 15: 97-107.
Leonard, G. 1998 Eucalypts: a bushwalker's guide. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington, NSW.
Lunney, D., Dickman, C. R., and Burgin, S. (eds). 2002 A clash of paradigms: community and research-based conservation. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Major, R. E., Christie, F. J., Gowing, G. and Ivison, T. J. 1999. Age structure and density of red-capped robin populations vary with habitat size and shape. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 901-908.
Margules, C. R. 1992. The Wog Wog fragmentation experiment. Environmental Conservation 19: 316-325.
Marquis, R. J. 1984. Leaf herbivores decrease fitness of a tropical plant. Science 226: 537-539.
Marquis, R. J. and Whelan, C. J. 1994. Insectivorous birds increase growth of white oak through consumption of leafchewing insects. Ecology 75: 2007-2014.
McDonald, T., Wale, K. and Bear, V. 2002. Restoring Blue Gum High Forest: lessons from Sheldon Forest. Ecological Management and Restoration 3: 15-27.
McDonnell, M. J., Pickett, S. T. A., and Pouyat, R. V. 1993. The application of the ecological gradient paradigm to the study of urban effects. Pp. 175-189 in Humans as components of ecosystems, edited by M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett. Springer: New York.
McGeoch, M. A. and Chown, S. L. 1997. Impact of urbanization on a gall-inhabiting Lepidoptera assemblage: the importance of reserves in urban areas. Biodiversity and conservation 6: 979-993.
Miyashita, T., Shinkai, A. and Chida, T. 1998. The effects of forest fragmentation on web spider communities in urban areas. Biological Conservation 86: 357-364.
Nuckols, M. S. and Connor, E. F. 1995. Do trees in urban or ornamental plantings receive more damage by insects than trees in natural forests? Ecological Entomology 20: 253-260.
Old, K. M., 2000. Eucalypt diseases of complex etiology. Pp. 411-425 in Diseases and pathogens of Eucalypts. CSIRO publishing: Melbourne.
Ozanne, C. M. P., Hambler, C., Foggo, A., and Speight, M. R. 1997. The significance of edge effects in the management of forests for invertebrate biodiversity. Pp. 534-550 in Canopy arthropods edited by N. E. Stork, J. Adis and R. K. Didham. Chapman and Hall: London.
Panzer, R. and Schwartz, M. W. 1998. Effectiveness of a vegetation-based approach to insect conservation. Conservation Biology 12: 693-702.
Port, G. R. and Thompson, J. R. 1980. Outbreaks of insect herbivores on plants along motorways in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 649-656.
Reader, T. and Hochuli, D. F. 2003. Understanding gregariousness in a larval lepidopteran: the roles of host plant, predation and microclimate. Ecological Entomology in press.
Recher, H. 2004. The Kings Park avifauna: keeping birds in the city. Pp. 8-20 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Roberts, P. 1993 Bird watchers guide to the Sydney region. Kangaroo Press Pty Ltd: Kenthurst, NSW.
Robinson, G. R., Holt, R. D., Gaines, M. S., Hamburg, S. P., Johnson, M. L., Fitch, H. S., and Matinko, E. A. 1992. Diverse and contrasting effects of habitat fragmentation. Science 257:
Rosenheim, J. A. 1998. Higher-order predators and the regulation of insect herbivore populations. Annual Review of Entomology 43: 421-447.
Ruszczyk, A. 1996. Spatial patterns in pupal mortality in urban palm caterpillars. Oecologia 107: 356-363.
Stone, C. 2000. Assessment and monitoring of decline and dieback of forest eucalypts in relation to ecologically sustainable forest management: a review with a case study. Australian Forestry 62: 51-58.
Suarez, A. V., Bolger, D. T., and Case, T. J. 1998. The effects of fragmentation and invasion on the native ant community in coastal southern California. Ecology 79: 2041-2056.
Van der Ree. R. 2004. The impact of urbanisation on the mammals of Melbourne - do atlas records tell the whole story or just some of the chapters? Pp. 195-204 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Ward, S. and Close, R. 2004. Southern Sydney's urban koalas: community research and education at Campbelltown. Pp. 144-54 in Urban Wildlife. More than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
White T. C. R. 1984. The abundance of insect herbivores in relation to the availability of nitrogen in stressed food plants. Oecologia 63: 90-105.
Woodford, J. 2000. Harbour forests left bare by mystery disease. Sydney Morning Herald, August 2, 2000.
Yen, A. and Butcher, R. 1997 An overview of the conservation of non-marine invertebrates in Australia. Environment Australia, Department of the Environment, Canberra.
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