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Five large (greater than 35 ha) urban bushland reserves in Greater Sydney were selected where herpetofaunal assemblages could be deduced and there were recent herpetofauna surveys. Four reserves (Rockdale Wetlands Corridor, Wolli Creek Valley, Burnt Bridge Creek Corridor and Middle Harbour Bushland Reserves) had been surrounded by residential development for more than 50 years. The fifth (University of Western Sydney, Richmond campus) was surrounded by agricultural and peri-urban development. Records from the scientific literature, local natural history groups, amateur herpetologists and council archives were used to gather historic information on the frogs and reptiles. Interviews were also conducted with researchers and neighbours of the reserves. Eight extant species were common to all reserves while another, predicted to be in all reserves, was universally absent. Despite the relatively large size of these bushland remnants, in all reserves the number of reptile and frog species had declined since urbanisation. The largest losses occurred in the four urban reserves. Seven species predicted to have occurred historically were now only present in the peri-urban site. Some herpetofaunal groups were more vulnerable than others. Goannas were locally extinct in urban reserves. Tree frogs and geckos were depleted while ground frogs and skinks were reduced to approximately half their original species numbers. This is in contrast to the peri-urban site where there had been no loss of tree frogs or goannas and generally more than half of the species in each group were extant. Urban impacts that appeared to relate to herpetofauna decline were direct human intervention that resulted in death or removal of individuals (e.g. goannas, large snakes), interference with habitat such as bush rock removal (e.g. smaller snakes, geckoes, skinks), fire (e.g. non-burrowing small residents), interference with the water cycle including infilling and pollution (e.g. frogs) and exotic predators (e.g. dragons, turtles, skinks). In general, herpetofauna with the least future prospects were those most susceptible to decline. These included the large, conspicuous fauna that required a substantial home range, attracted the attention of humans because of ‘pet appeal’ or due to their perceived danger; were vulnerable at some stage of the lifecycle to predation by feral species; and had specific habitat requirements for reproduction such as quality water or open sandy banks for egg incubation. Those that are small, generalist and unappealing to humans are most likely to survive. There is, therefore, little doubt that diversity in reserves will continue to dwindle unless strategies are devised to overcome the present trend. Current conservation strategies that generally target single species need to be expanded to ecosystem level to monitor threats and management implemented for their removal.

Anderson, L. 1999 The Influence of Edge Effects on Small Skinks on the Cumberland Plain, Richmond, NSW. BSc(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Anderson, L. in prep. Small reptiles as bioindicators in rehabilitation and restoration of ecosystems. PhD University of Western Sydney, South Penrith.
Anderson, L. and Burgin, S. 2002. The influence of woodland remnant edges on small skinks (Richmond, New South Wales). Austral Ecology 27: 630-637.
Anstis, M. 2002 Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. A Guide with Keys. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Barkley, J. and Nichols, M. 1994. Hawkesbury 1794-1994: The First Two Hundred Years of the Second Colonisation. Hawkesbury City Council, Windsor.
Benson, D. 1992. The natural vegetation of the Penrith 1:100000 map sheet. Cumminghamia 2:503-662.
Benson, D., and Howell, J. 1990 Taken for Granted. The bushland of Sydney and its suburbs. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, New South Wales.
Benson, D., and Howell, J. 1994. The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100,00 map sheet. Cunninghamiana 3(4), 677-799.
Betts, J. 1995 External macrobiota of the Eastern Longnecked Tortoise, Chelodina longicollis Shaw. M. App. Sc. Thesis, University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Biosphere Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. 1999. Rockdale Flora and Fauna. Prepared for Rockdale City Council, Rockdale.
Biosphere Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. 2001a. Fauna of the Willoughby Bushland Reserves. Prepared for Willoughby City Council, Willoughby.
Biosphere Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. 2001b. Fauna of the Burnt Bridge Creek Corridor. Prepared for Manly City Council, Manly.
Burgin, S. 1993 Lampropholis: the new ‘laboratory’ animals. Pp. 279-282 in Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Burgin, S., Emerton, S. and Burgin, M. 1999. Demonstration that fyke nets provide an unbiased population sample for Eastern longneck turtles, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw). Australian Zoologist 31: 161-165.
Cann, J. 1998 Australian Freshwater Turtles. Co-published by John Cann, Sydney and Beaumont Publishing Pty Ltd, Singapore.
Catterall, C. 2003. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Cogger, H. G., Cameron, E., Sadlier, and Eggler, P. 1993. The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Cogger, H. G. 2000 Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. 6th Edition. Reed Books, North Ryde.
Copland, S. J. 1957. Australian tree frogs of the genus Hyla. Proceedinsg of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 78:9-108.
Dalem, A. G. R. 1998 Demography and Movement Patterns of a Population of Eastern Snake-necked Turtles, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw, 1794). MSc (Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Daly, G. 1997. Behaviour of the Bearded Dragon Lizards Pogona barbata and P. vitticeps in captivity. Herpetofauna 27(2): 28-32.
Ehmann, H. 1992 Encyclopedia of Australian Animals: Reptiles. The Australian Museum Trust, Sydney.
Ferraro, T. 1992 Factors Influencing the decline of Frogs (Amphibia: Anura) in Western Sydney. B. Appl. Sci (Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Ferraro, T. J., and S. Burgin. 1993a. Amphibian decline: a case study in western Sydney. Pp197-204 in Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman.
Ferraro, T. J., and S. Burgin. 1993b. Review of environmental factors influencing the decline of Australian frogs. Pp205-218 in Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman.
Fletcher, J. J. 1890. Contributions to a more exact knowledge of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. No. 1. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Series 2 5:667-676.
Fletcher, J. J. 1891. Contributions to a more exact knowledge of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. No. 2. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Series 2 6:263-274.
Friend, T. 1993. Impact of fire on small vertebrates in mallee woodlands and heathlands of temperate Australia-a review. Biological Conservation 65:99-114.
Giffney, D. 1997 Weather Influences upon the Activity of Small Skinks (Lacertilia: Scincidae). M. Appl. Sci (Env. Sci) Thesis. University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Gillespie, G., and H. Hines. 1999. Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. Pp 109-130 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Green, D. 1973. The reptiles of the outer north-western suburbs of Sydney. Herpetofauna 6(2):2-5.
Green, B., and King, D. 1993 Goanna. The biology of varanid lizards. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington.
Greer, A. E. 1989 The Biology and Evolution of Australian Lizards. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Greer, A. E. 1995. Fauna Impact Statement for proposed development works at the Homebush Bay brickpit. Prepared for Property Services Group, Sydney.
Greer, A. E. 1997 The Biology and Evolution of Australian Snakes. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Reptiles of the Sydney Region. Three Sisters Productions, Winmalee. 120 pp.
Harlow, P. S., and Harlow, M. 1997. Captive reproduction and longevity in the Eastern water dragon ( Physignathus lesueurii). Herpetofauna 27(1): 14-19.
Harrison, L. 1922. On the breeding habits of some Australian frogs. Australian Zoologist 3:17-34.
Hengl, T. and Burgin, S. 2002. Reproduction and larval growth of the urban dwelling Brown striped marsh frog Limnodynastes peronii. Australian Zoologist 32:62-68.
Honegger, R. E. 1981. Threatened amphibian and reptiles in Europe. Akademische Verlagsesellschaft: Weisbaden, 3-39.
Howard, P. and Jones, D. N. 2003. The meaning of feeding: A qualitative investigation of motivations and practices associated with feeding wildlife in urban southeat Queensland. This volume.
Jelbart, J. E. 1998 An Investigation of the Influence of Edge Effects on the Distribution and Abundance of Skinks in Remnant Cumberland Woodland in Western Sydney. M. Appl. Sci (Env. Sci.) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Koenig, J., Shine, R. and Shea, G. 2001. The ecology of an Australian reptile icon: how do blue-tongue lizards ( Tiliqua scincoides) survive in suburbia? Wildlife Research 28:215-227.
Krefft, G. 1863. On the batrachians occurring in the neighbourhood of Sydney, with remarks upon their geographical distribution. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863: 386-396.
Krefft, G. 1866. On snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney. Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales. 1862-1865, 34-60.
Lockington, 1879. Notes on some reptiles and batrachia of the Pacific coast. American Naturalist 13: 780-784.
Lunney, D., Eby, P. and O'Connell, M. 1991. Effects of logging, fire and drought on three species of lizards in Mumbulla State Forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 16:33-46.
Manidis Roberts Consultants. 1996. Supplement to the M5 East Motorway Environment Impact Statement. Prepared for the Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.
Marks, C. A., and R. V. Short. 1996. Outfoxing the fox. Australia Nature 25(5): 38-45.
McPhee, D. 1963 Some Common Snakes and Lizards of Australia. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane.
Moore, J. A. 1961. The frogs of eastern New South Wales. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 121(3):149-386.
Murphy, M. 1996. Relict herpetofauna of a small bushland remnant in Sydney, NSW. Herpetofauna 26(1):45.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2003. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. This volume.
Patchell, F. C., and R. Shine. 1986. Food habits and reproductive biology of the Australian legless lizards (Pygopodidae). Copeia 1986(1):30-39.
Pyke, G. H. 1996. Fauna Impact Statement for the proposed development works at the Homebush Bay development Area, excluding the brickpit. Prepared for the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Pyke, G. H., and White, A. W. 1999. Dynamics of co-occuring frog species in three ponds utilised by the endangered Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea. Australian Zoologist 31: 230-239.
Pyke, G. H. and White, A. W. 2001. A review of the biology of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea.Australian Zoologist 31:563-598.
Rathbone, R. W. 1999 The Bardwell Valley-Emerging Urban Jewel. Wild and Woolley, Glebe.
Rathbone, R. W. 2000 Brighton-le-sands-the suburb that grew from the sand hills. Wild and Woolley, Glebe.
Rose, B. 1982. Lizard home ranges: methodology and function. Journal of Herpetology 16: 253-269.
Rosser, T. 1997 Haematozoa on Freshwater Turtles in the Lane Cove River (Sydney, Australia). BSc (Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Ross, J. B. 2000 An Investigation of the Distribution Patterns of Aquatic Vertebrates across Four Sites in the Upper Parramatta River Catchment. MSc(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Saunders, D. A. 1989. Changes in the avifauna of a region’ district and remnant as a result of fragmentation of native vegetation: the wheatbelt of Western Australia. A case study. Biological Conservation 50:99-135.
Saunders, D. A. 1994. The effects of habitat reduction and fragmentation on the mammals and birds of the Western Australian central wheatbelt: lessons for western New South Wales. Pp 99-105 in Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Schell, C. 1997 Effects of Time and Habitat Status on Frog (Amphibia: Anura) Reproduction: a Case Study from Western Sydney. B. Appl. Sc.(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Schell, C. and Burgin, S. 2003. Swimming against the current: the Limnodynastes peronii success story. Australian Zoologist 32:401-405
Schlesinger, C. A. and Shine, R. 1994. Choosing a rock: perspectives of a bush-rock collector and a saxicolous lizard. Biological Conservation 67:49-56.
Shea, G. M. 1993. Hidden herpetology: a list of theses in Australian universities to mid-1993. Pp 1-16 in Herpetology in Australia. A diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Shea, G. 1998. Backyard Blue-tongues. Australia Nature 26(3),30-39.
Shine, R. 1990. The broad-headed snake. Australian Natural History 23(6): 442.
Shine, R. and Fitzgerald, M. 1989. Conservation and reproduction of an endangered species: the broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae). Australian Zoologist 25:65-68.
Swan, G. 1990 A field guide to the snakes and lizards of New South Wales. Three Sisters Productions Pty Ltd, Winmalee.
Thumm, K. and Mahony, K. 1999. Loss and degradation of Red-crowned Toadlet habitat in the Sydney Region. Pp 99-108 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Tolhurst, K. G. 1994. Effects of fuel reduction burning on fauna in dry sclerophyll forest. Pp1113-121 in Fire and Biodiversity. The effects and effectiveness of fire management. Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 8, Dept. of Environment, Sport and Territories Canberra.
Thompson, M. B. 1983. Populations of the Murray River tortoise, Emydura ( Chelodina): the effect of egg predation by the Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 363-371.
Tyler, M. J. 1989 Australian Frogs. Viking O'Neil, Ringwood.
Warner, F. 1995 A Comparison of the Dietary Contents of Two Sympatric Scincid Lizards, Lampropholis delicata de Vis 1888 and Lampropholis guichenoti Dumeri1 and Bibron, 1839 (Lacertilia: Scincidae). B. App. Sc.(Hons), University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Webb, J. K. and Shine, R. 1994. Habitat use by the broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Research report to Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Wong, P. and Burgin, S. 1997. Are the turtles disappearing from the Hawkesbury-Nepean? Herpetofauna 27:17-21.
Worrell, E. 1963 Reptiles of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
White, A. W. 1993. Fauna Impact Statement. Green and Golden Bell frog Litoria aurea, proposed development site Roberts Road, Greenacre. Prepared for Finemore, Sydney.
White, A. W. 1998a. Management Plan for Green and Golden Bell Frogs Litoria aurea. Marsh Street and Eve Street Wetlands, Arncliffe. Prepared for the Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.
White, A. W. 1998b. Frogs as Bio-indicators. In Bioindicator Study. Urban Wastewater Management. Ch. 5. Prepared for the Urban Runoff Task Force, Sydney.
White, A. W. 2001. Plan of Management. Green and Golden Bell Frogs. Incitec Site, Port Kembla, Prepared for Incitec Pty Ltd.
White, A. W., and Pyke, G. H. 1996. Distribution and conservation status of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea in New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 30: 177- 189.
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Contents

Figures & Tables

References

Anderson, L. 1999 The Influence of Edge Effects on Small Skinks on the Cumberland Plain, Richmond, NSW. BSc(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Anderson, L. in prep. Small reptiles as bioindicators in rehabilitation and restoration of ecosystems. PhD University of Western Sydney, South Penrith.
Anderson, L. and Burgin, S. 2002. The influence of woodland remnant edges on small skinks (Richmond, New South Wales). Austral Ecology 27: 630-637.
Anstis, M. 2002 Tadpoles of South-eastern Australia. A Guide with Keys. Reed New Holland, Sydney.
Barkley, J. and Nichols, M. 1994. Hawkesbury 1794-1994: The First Two Hundred Years of the Second Colonisation. Hawkesbury City Council, Windsor.
Benson, D. 1992. The natural vegetation of the Penrith 1:100000 map sheet. Cumminghamia 2:503-662.
Benson, D., and Howell, J. 1990 Taken for Granted. The bushland of Sydney and its suburbs. Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, New South Wales.
Benson, D., and Howell, J. 1994. The natural vegetation of the Sydney 1:100,00 map sheet. Cunninghamiana 3(4), 677-799.
Betts, J. 1995 External macrobiota of the Eastern Longnecked Tortoise, Chelodina longicollis Shaw. M. App. Sc. Thesis, University of Western Sydney Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Biosphere Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. 1999. Rockdale Flora and Fauna. Prepared for Rockdale City Council, Rockdale.
Biosphere Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. 2001a. Fauna of the Willoughby Bushland Reserves. Prepared for Willoughby City Council, Willoughby.
Biosphere Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd. 2001b. Fauna of the Burnt Bridge Creek Corridor. Prepared for Manly City Council, Manly.
Burgin, S. 1993 Lampropholis: the new ‘laboratory’ animals. Pp. 279-282 in Herpetology in Australia: A Diverse Discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.
Burgin, S., Emerton, S. and Burgin, M. 1999. Demonstration that fyke nets provide an unbiased population sample for Eastern longneck turtles, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw). Australian Zoologist 31: 161-165.
Cann, J. 1998 Australian Freshwater Turtles. Co-published by John Cann, Sydney and Beaumont Publishing Pty Ltd, Singapore.
Catterall, C. 2003. Birds, garden plants and suburban bushlots: where good intentions meet unexpected outcomes. Pp. 21-31 in Urban Wildlife: more than meets the eye, edited by D. Lunney and S. Burgin. Royal Zological Society of NSW, Mosman NSW.
Cogger, H. G., Cameron, E., Sadlier, and Eggler, P. 1993. The Action Plan for Australian Reptiles. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Cogger, H. G. 2000 Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia. 6th Edition. Reed Books, North Ryde.
Copland, S. J. 1957. Australian tree frogs of the genus Hyla. Proceedinsg of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 78:9-108.
Dalem, A. G. R. 1998 Demography and Movement Patterns of a Population of Eastern Snake-necked Turtles, Chelodina longicollis (Shaw, 1794). MSc (Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Daly, G. 1997. Behaviour of the Bearded Dragon Lizards Pogona barbata and P. vitticeps in captivity. Herpetofauna 27(2): 28-32.
Ehmann, H. 1992 Encyclopedia of Australian Animals: Reptiles. The Australian Museum Trust, Sydney.
Ferraro, T. 1992 Factors Influencing the decline of Frogs (Amphibia: Anura) in Western Sydney. B. Appl. Sci (Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Ferraro, T. J., and S. Burgin. 1993a. Amphibian decline: a case study in western Sydney. Pp197-204 in Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman.
Ferraro, T. J., and S. Burgin. 1993b. Review of environmental factors influencing the decline of Australian frogs. Pp205-218 in Herpetology in Australia: a diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales: Mosman.
Fletcher, J. J. 1890. Contributions to a more exact knowledge of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. No. 1. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Series 2 5:667-676.
Fletcher, J. J. 1891. Contributions to a more exact knowledge of the geographical distribution of Australian Batrachia. No. 2. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales Series 2 6:263-274.
Friend, T. 1993. Impact of fire on small vertebrates in mallee woodlands and heathlands of temperate Australia-a review. Biological Conservation 65:99-114.
Giffney, D. 1997 Weather Influences upon the Activity of Small Skinks (Lacertilia: Scincidae). M. Appl. Sci (Env. Sci) Thesis. University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Gillespie, G., and H. Hines. 1999. Status of temperate riverine frogs in south-eastern Australia. Pp 109-130 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Green, D. 1973. The reptiles of the outer north-western suburbs of Sydney. Herpetofauna 6(2):2-5.
Green, B., and King, D. 1993 Goanna. The biology of varanid lizards. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington.
Greer, A. E. 1989 The Biology and Evolution of Australian Lizards. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Greer, A. E. 1995. Fauna Impact Statement for proposed development works at the Homebush Bay brickpit. Prepared for Property Services Group, Sydney.
Greer, A. E. 1997 The Biology and Evolution of Australian Snakes. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton.
Griffiths, K. 1997 Reptiles of the Sydney Region. Three Sisters Productions, Winmalee. 120 pp.
Harlow, P. S., and Harlow, M. 1997. Captive reproduction and longevity in the Eastern water dragon ( Physignathus lesueurii). Herpetofauna 27(1): 14-19.
Harrison, L. 1922. On the breeding habits of some Australian frogs. Australian Zoologist 3:17-34.
Hengl, T. and Burgin, S. 2002. Reproduction and larval growth of the urban dwelling Brown striped marsh frog Limnodynastes peronii. Australian Zoologist 32:62-68.
Honegger, R. E. 1981. Threatened amphibian and reptiles in Europe. Akademische Verlagsesellschaft: Weisbaden, 3-39.
Howard, P. and Jones, D. N. 2003. The meaning of feeding: A qualitative investigation of motivations and practices associated with feeding wildlife in urban southeat Queensland. This volume.
Jelbart, J. E. 1998 An Investigation of the Influence of Edge Effects on the Distribution and Abundance of Skinks in Remnant Cumberland Woodland in Western Sydney. M. Appl. Sci (Env. Sci.) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Koenig, J., Shine, R. and Shea, G. 2001. The ecology of an Australian reptile icon: how do blue-tongue lizards ( Tiliqua scincoides) survive in suburbia? Wildlife Research 28:215-227.
Krefft, G. 1863. On the batrachians occurring in the neighbourhood of Sydney, with remarks upon their geographical distribution. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1863: 386-396.
Krefft, G. 1866. On snakes observed in the neighbourhood of Sydney. Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales. 1862-1865, 34-60.
Lockington, 1879. Notes on some reptiles and batrachia of the Pacific coast. American Naturalist 13: 780-784.
Lunney, D., Eby, P. and O'Connell, M. 1991. Effects of logging, fire and drought on three species of lizards in Mumbulla State Forest on the south coast of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Ecology 16:33-46.
Manidis Roberts Consultants. 1996. Supplement to the M5 East Motorway Environment Impact Statement. Prepared for the Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney.
Marks, C. A., and R. V. Short. 1996. Outfoxing the fox. Australia Nature 25(5): 38-45.
McPhee, D. 1963 Some Common Snakes and Lizards of Australia. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane.
Moore, J. A. 1961. The frogs of eastern New South Wales. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 121(3):149-386.
Murphy, M. 1996. Relict herpetofauna of a small bushland remnant in Sydney, NSW. Herpetofauna 26(1):45.
Parsons, H. M. and Major, R. E. 2003. Bird interactions in Sydney gardens: some initial findings of the Birds in Backyards program. This volume.
Patchell, F. C., and R. Shine. 1986. Food habits and reproductive biology of the Australian legless lizards (Pygopodidae). Copeia 1986(1):30-39.
Pyke, G. H. 1996. Fauna Impact Statement for the proposed development works at the Homebush Bay development Area, excluding the brickpit. Prepared for the Olympic Co-ordination Authority, Sydney.
Pyke, G. H., and White, A. W. 1999. Dynamics of co-occuring frog species in three ponds utilised by the endangered Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea. Australian Zoologist 31: 230-239.
Pyke, G. H. and White, A. W. 2001. A review of the biology of the Green and Golden Bell Frog Litoria aurea.Australian Zoologist 31:563-598.
Rathbone, R. W. 1999 The Bardwell Valley-Emerging Urban Jewel. Wild and Woolley, Glebe.
Rathbone, R. W. 2000 Brighton-le-sands-the suburb that grew from the sand hills. Wild and Woolley, Glebe.
Rose, B. 1982. Lizard home ranges: methodology and function. Journal of Herpetology 16: 253-269.
Rosser, T. 1997 Haematozoa on Freshwater Turtles in the Lane Cove River (Sydney, Australia). BSc (Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Ross, J. B. 2000 An Investigation of the Distribution Patterns of Aquatic Vertebrates across Four Sites in the Upper Parramatta River Catchment. MSc(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Saunders, D. A. 1989. Changes in the avifauna of a region’ district and remnant as a result of fragmentation of native vegetation: the wheatbelt of Western Australia. A case study. Biological Conservation 50:99-135.
Saunders, D. A. 1994. The effects of habitat reduction and fragmentation on the mammals and birds of the Western Australian central wheatbelt: lessons for western New South Wales. Pp 99-105 in Future of the Fauna of Western New South Wales, edited by D. Lunney, S. Hand, P. Reed and D. Butcher. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Schell, C. 1997 Effects of Time and Habitat Status on Frog (Amphibia: Anura) Reproduction: a Case Study from Western Sydney. B. Appl. Sc.(Hons) Thesis, University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Schell, C. and Burgin, S. 2003. Swimming against the current: the Limnodynastes peronii success story. Australian Zoologist 32:401-405
Schlesinger, C. A. and Shine, R. 1994. Choosing a rock: perspectives of a bush-rock collector and a saxicolous lizard. Biological Conservation 67:49-56.
Shea, G. M. 1993. Hidden herpetology: a list of theses in Australian universities to mid-1993. Pp 1-16 in Herpetology in Australia. A diverse discipline, edited by D. Lunney and D. Ayers. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, New South Wales.
Shea, G. 1998. Backyard Blue-tongues. Australia Nature 26(3),30-39.
Shine, R. 1990. The broad-headed snake. Australian Natural History 23(6): 442.
Shine, R. and Fitzgerald, M. 1989. Conservation and reproduction of an endangered species: the broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides (Elapidae). Australian Zoologist 25:65-68.
Swan, G. 1990 A field guide to the snakes and lizards of New South Wales. Three Sisters Productions Pty Ltd, Winmalee.
Thumm, K. and Mahony, K. 1999. Loss and degradation of Red-crowned Toadlet habitat in the Sydney Region. Pp 99-108 in Declines and Disappearances of Australian Frogs, edited by A. Campbell. Environment Australia, Canberra.
Tolhurst, K. G. 1994. Effects of fuel reduction burning on fauna in dry sclerophyll forest. Pp1113-121 in Fire and Biodiversity. The effects and effectiveness of fire management. Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 8, Dept. of Environment, Sport and Territories Canberra.
Thompson, M. B. 1983. Populations of the Murray River tortoise, Emydura ( Chelodina): the effect of egg predation by the Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes. Australian Wildlife Research 10: 363-371.
Tyler, M. J. 1989 Australian Frogs. Viking O'Neil, Ringwood.
Warner, F. 1995 A Comparison of the Dietary Contents of Two Sympatric Scincid Lizards, Lampropholis delicata de Vis 1888 and Lampropholis guichenoti Dumeri1 and Bibron, 1839 (Lacertilia: Scincidae). B. App. Sc.(Hons), University of Western Sydney - Hawkesbury, Richmond.
Webb, J. K. and Shine, R. 1994. Habitat use by the broad-headed snake Hoplocephalus bungaroides. Research report to Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra and NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Wong, P. and Burgin, S. 1997. Are the turtles disappearing from the Hawkesbury-Nepean? Herpetofauna 27:17-21.
Worrell, E. 1963 Reptiles of Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
White, A. W. 1993. Fauna Impact Statement. Green and Golden Bell frog Litoria aurea, proposed development site Roberts Road, Greenacre. Prepared for Finemore, Sydney.
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