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In 1998 we commenced the first formal study of the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor population in Sydney Harbour. Prior to this study there was limited and inaccurate information about the population's size and distribution, and no information relating to the breeding biology or foraging ecology of these birds. This study has revealed that the population is small (60-70 breeding pairs) and restricted to 2 km of foreshore within the busy port of Sydney Harbour. The Little Penguins in Sydney Harbour have adapted their nesting behaviour to the urban habitat. In response to the lack of tussock grass, sandy soils or other suitable habitat on the Hawkesbury sandstone foreshores of Sydney, the Manly colony of Little Penguins nest mostly in rock crevices and human-made structures that offer protection from the weather, tidal action, predators and human disturbance. The Sydney Harbour population of Little Penguins has an extended breeding season (July to February), high breeding success (averaging 48.76% over the three years of the study) and a high rate of double brooding (averaging 12.53%). Despite the high level of breeding success, the Little Penguins in Sydney Harbour are subject to a relatively high level of adult mortality, especially on land. This exemplifies many of the major issues faced by managers of wildlife in urban environments, yet offers a model for the cohabitation of wildlife and humans. Recent legislation and implementation of cooperative management strategies aim to generate a coordinated approach across jurisdictional boundaries that will mitigate many of the threats to the colony, including loss of breeding and foraging habitat, predation from domestic pets, direct human disturbance and indirect disturbance from human activities such as movement, light and noise from boats and fishermen, and pollution.

Cunningham, M., Gibbs, P., Rogers, T., Speilman, D. and Walraven, E. 1993 Ecology and health of the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor near Sydney. A report prepared for Sydney Water Corporation. Veterinary Quarantine Centre, Taronga Zoological Park.
Boating Industry Association. 2002. Web Page. www.bia.org.au
Dann, P. 1992. Distribution, population trends and factors influencing the population size of Little Penguins Eudyptula minor on Philip Is Victoria. Emu 91: 263-272.
Fortescue, M. 1991 Biology and Management of the Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor (Forster), 1780, on Bowen Island, Jervis Bay. M. Appl. Sci. Thesis, University of Canberra.
Gales, R. P. 1987. Validation of the stomach-flushing technique for obtaining stomach contents of penguins. Ibis 129: 335-43.
Jomantis, M. 2000 Mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor ) along Sydney's coastline, Australia. Masters minithesis, Macquarie University.
Klomp, N. I., Meathrel, C. E., Wienecke, B. C. & Wooller, R. D. 1991. Surface nesting by Little Penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91: 190-193
Klomp, N. I. and Wooller, R. D. 1988. The size of Little Penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 14: 211-215.
Klomp, N. I. & Wooller, R. D. 1991. Patterns of arrival and departure by breeding Little Penguins at Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91: 32-35.
Kuiter, R. H. 1996 Guide to sea fishes of Australia. New Holland Publishers (Australia).
Newman, G. 1992. Studies on the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor in Victoria: an introduction. Emu 91, 261-262.
NPWS. 1989 Eagles Claw Nature Reserve Draft Plan of Management. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
NPWS. 2000 Recovery Plan for the endangered population of Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor ) at Manly. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
NPWS. 2002 Recovery Plan for the endangered population of Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor ) at Manly. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service web site, www.npws.nsw.gov.au
Reilly, P. 1994 Penguins of the world. Oxford University Press
Shaughnessy, P. D., Nicholls, A. O. and Briggs, S. V. 1999. Interactions between tourists and wildlife at Montague Island: Fur Seals, Little Penguins and Crested Terns. A report to the National Parks and Wildlife Service. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra.
Stahel, C. and Gales, R. 1987 Little Penguin. Fairy Penguins in Australia. NSW University Press, Kensington.
Weavers, B. W. 1992. Seasonal foraging ranges and travels at sea of Little Penguins Eudyptula minor, determined by radiotracking. Emu 91: 302-317.
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References

Cunningham, M., Gibbs, P., Rogers, T., Speilman, D. and Walraven, E. 1993 Ecology and health of the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor near Sydney. A report prepared for Sydney Water Corporation. Veterinary Quarantine Centre, Taronga Zoological Park.
Boating Industry Association. 2002. Web Page. www.bia.org.au
Dann, P. 1992. Distribution, population trends and factors influencing the population size of Little Penguins Eudyptula minor on Philip Is Victoria. Emu 91: 263-272.
Fortescue, M. 1991 Biology and Management of the Little Penguin, Eudyptula minor (Forster), 1780, on Bowen Island, Jervis Bay. M. Appl. Sci. Thesis, University of Canberra.
Gales, R. P. 1987. Validation of the stomach-flushing technique for obtaining stomach contents of penguins. Ibis 129: 335-43.
Jomantis, M. 2000 Mortality in Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor ) along Sydney's coastline, Australia. Masters minithesis, Macquarie University.
Klomp, N. I., Meathrel, C. E., Wienecke, B. C. & Wooller, R. D. 1991. Surface nesting by Little Penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91: 190-193
Klomp, N. I. and Wooller, R. D. 1988. The size of Little Penguins on Penguin Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 14: 211-215.
Klomp, N. I. & Wooller, R. D. 1991. Patterns of arrival and departure by breeding Little Penguins at Penguin Island, Western Australia. Emu 91: 32-35.
Kuiter, R. H. 1996 Guide to sea fishes of Australia. New Holland Publishers (Australia).
Newman, G. 1992. Studies on the Little Penguin Eudyptula minor in Victoria: an introduction. Emu 91, 261-262.
NPWS. 1989 Eagles Claw Nature Reserve Draft Plan of Management. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
NPWS. 2000 Recovery Plan for the endangered population of Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor ) at Manly. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
NPWS. 2002 Recovery Plan for the endangered population of Little Penguins (Eudyptula minor ) at Manly. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service web site, www.npws.nsw.gov.au
Reilly, P. 1994 Penguins of the world. Oxford University Press
Shaughnessy, P. D., Nicholls, A. O. and Briggs, S. V. 1999. Interactions between tourists and wildlife at Montague Island: Fur Seals, Little Penguins and Crested Terns. A report to the National Parks and Wildlife Service. CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology, Canberra.
Stahel, C. and Gales, R. 1987 Little Penguin. Fairy Penguins in Australia. NSW University Press, Kensington.
Weavers, B. W. 1992. Seasonal foraging ranges and travels at sea of Little Penguins Eudyptula minor, determined by radiotracking. Emu 91: 302-317.
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