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The Silver Gull population in the Greater Melbourne Area has expanded dramatically in response to the availability of abundant anthropogenic foods. The activities of large numbers of gulls lead to a range of conflicts with human interests. These conflicts and examples of their economic costs are described and strategies for their mitigation are discussed.

Anderson, G. 1988. Silver gulls in Ballarat: an investigation of abundance, breeding and movements. 3rd year student project Ballarat College of Advanced Education Department of Applied Biology and Environmental Science, Mt Helen.
Belant, J. L. 1997. Gulls in urban environments - landscape-level management to reduce conflict. Landscape & Urban Planning (Amsterdam) 38:245-58.
Blokpoel, H. and Spaans, A. L. 1991. Introductory Remarks: Superabundance in Gulls: Causes, Problems and Solutions. Pages 2361-64 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Blokpoel, H., Weller, W. F., Tessier, G. D. and Smith, B. 1990. Roof nesting by Ring-Billed Gulls and Herring Gulls in Ontario in 1989. Ontario Birds 8.
Blokpoel, H., and Tessier, G. D. 1986. The Ring-billed Gull in Ontario: a review of a new problem species. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers Series Report No. 57.
Harris, M. P. 1970. Rates and causes of increases of some British gull populations. Bird Study 17:325-35.
Higgins, P. J., and S. J. J. F. Davies, (Eds). 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 3: Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Horton, N., Brough, T. and Rochard, J. B. A. 1983. The importance of refuse tips to gulls wintering in an inland area of south-east England. Journal of Applied Ecology 20:751-65.
Meathrel, C., Mills, J. A. and Wooller, R. D. 1991. The Silver Gull in Australia and New Zealand. Pages 2390-95 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Monaghan, P. and Coulson, J. C. 1977. Status of large gulls nesting on buildings. Bird Study 24:89-104.
Raven, S. J. and Coulson, J. C. 1997. The distribution and abundance of Larus gulls nesting on buildings in Britain and Ireland. Bird Study 44:13-34.
Smith, G. C. and Carlile, N. 1993a. Food and feeding ecology of breeding Silver Gulls ( Larus novaehollandiae) in urban Australia. Colonial Waterbirds 16:9-17.
Smith, G. C. and Carlile, N. 1993b. Methods for population control within a Silver Gull colony. Wildlife Research 20:219-26.
Smith, G. C., Carlile, N. and Tully, S. 1992. Breeding and movements of wing-tagged Silver Gulls ( Larus novaehollandiae) at the largest colony in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19:161-67.
Spaans, A. L. and Blokpoel, H. 1991. Concluding Remarks: Superabundance in gulls: causes, problems and solutions. Pages 2396-98 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Thibault, J. C., Zotier, R., Guyot, I. and Bretagnolle, V. 1996. Recent trends in breeding marine birds of the Mediterranean region with special reference to Corsica. Colonial Waterbirds 19:31-40.
Vermeer, K. and Irons, D. B. 1991. The Glaucous-winged Gull on the Pacific coast of North America. Pages 2378-83 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Vermeer, K., Morgan, K. H., Smith, G. E. J. and York, B. A. 1991. Effects of egging on the reproductive success of Glaucouswinged Gulls. Colonial Waterbirds 14:158-65.
Viksne, J., Janaus, M. and Stipniece, A. 1996. Recent trends of the Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus population in Latvia. Ornis Svecica 6:39-44.
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References

Anderson, G. 1988. Silver gulls in Ballarat: an investigation of abundance, breeding and movements. 3rd year student project Ballarat College of Advanced Education Department of Applied Biology and Environmental Science, Mt Helen.
Belant, J. L. 1997. Gulls in urban environments - landscape-level management to reduce conflict. Landscape & Urban Planning (Amsterdam) 38:245-58.
Blokpoel, H. and Spaans, A. L. 1991. Introductory Remarks: Superabundance in Gulls: Causes, Problems and Solutions. Pages 2361-64 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Blokpoel, H., Weller, W. F., Tessier, G. D. and Smith, B. 1990. Roof nesting by Ring-Billed Gulls and Herring Gulls in Ontario in 1989. Ontario Birds 8.
Blokpoel, H., and Tessier, G. D. 1986. The Ring-billed Gull in Ontario: a review of a new problem species. Canadian Wildlife Service Occasional Papers Series Report No. 57.
Harris, M. P. 1970. Rates and causes of increases of some British gull populations. Bird Study 17:325-35.
Higgins, P. J., and S. J. J. F. Davies, (Eds). 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds. Volume 3: Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
Horton, N., Brough, T. and Rochard, J. B. A. 1983. The importance of refuse tips to gulls wintering in an inland area of south-east England. Journal of Applied Ecology 20:751-65.
Meathrel, C., Mills, J. A. and Wooller, R. D. 1991. The Silver Gull in Australia and New Zealand. Pages 2390-95 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Monaghan, P. and Coulson, J. C. 1977. Status of large gulls nesting on buildings. Bird Study 24:89-104.
Raven, S. J. and Coulson, J. C. 1997. The distribution and abundance of Larus gulls nesting on buildings in Britain and Ireland. Bird Study 44:13-34.
Smith, G. C. and Carlile, N. 1993a. Food and feeding ecology of breeding Silver Gulls ( Larus novaehollandiae) in urban Australia. Colonial Waterbirds 16:9-17.
Smith, G. C. and Carlile, N. 1993b. Methods for population control within a Silver Gull colony. Wildlife Research 20:219-26.
Smith, G. C., Carlile, N. and Tully, S. 1992. Breeding and movements of wing-tagged Silver Gulls ( Larus novaehollandiae) at the largest colony in New South Wales. Wildlife Research 19:161-67.
Spaans, A. L. and Blokpoel, H. 1991. Concluding Remarks: Superabundance in gulls: causes, problems and solutions. Pages 2396-98 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Thibault, J. C., Zotier, R., Guyot, I. and Bretagnolle, V. 1996. Recent trends in breeding marine birds of the Mediterranean region with special reference to Corsica. Colonial Waterbirds 19:31-40.
Vermeer, K. and Irons, D. B. 1991. The Glaucous-winged Gull on the Pacific coast of North America. Pages 2378-83 in Acta XX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici. New Zealand Ornithological Congress Trust Board: Wellington, New Zealand.
Vermeer, K., Morgan, K. H., Smith, G. E. J. and York, B. A. 1991. Effects of egging on the reproductive success of Glaucouswinged Gulls. Colonial Waterbirds 14:158-65.
Viksne, J., Janaus, M. and Stipniece, A. 1996. Recent trends of the Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus population in Latvia. Ornis Svecica 6:39-44.
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