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While it is undeniable that both feral cats and owned domestic cats prey on native wildlife, evidence that this is a threat to the viability of wildlife populations is contentious, particularly in the suburbs. Where uncertainty is great or the risks are high, the precautionary principle is a guide as to whether or not action should be taken to regulate domestic cats. This involves an evaluation of the available evidence and the extent of uncertainty, as well as consideration of the viewpoints of major stakeholders. Applying this approach leads to the conclusion that wildlife can be protected while improving cat welfare. Containing cats at night not only separates cats and nocturnal wildlife, but minimises trauma from both cat fights and road accidents while reducing nuisance to neighbours from caterwauling and fighting. Desexed cats no longer contribute toward unwanted stray and feral cat populations that depredate native wildlife populations and are often less of a nuisance to neighbours and themselves as spraying and fighting are reduced. Cats with identification can be returned to their owners should they be found lost or injured, while problem cats can be identified. Therefore, the cat welfare issue is the key to a successful precautionary approach because it achieves wildlife protection while respecting the interests of cat owners.

American Bird Conservancy Group, 1997. Human attitudes and behavior regarding cats. http://www.abcbirds.org/index.htm
American Bird Conservancy Group, 2001. Cats indoors! The campaign for safer birds and cats. http://www.abcbirds.org/cats/catsindoors.htm
Anderson, A. P., Reid, C. M. and Jennings, G. L., 1992. Is pet ownership good for your heart? The results of a survey of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Melbourne, Australia. Proceedings of the 1st Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Anderson, I., 1994. Should the cat take the rap? New Scientist (21 May): 13-14.
Anonymous, 1999. NSW Companion Animals Act.Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 424.
Archer, M., 2000. Monstrous moggies or charming chuditches? Nature Australia 26(8): 70-71.
Baker, D., 2001. Cat curfew - Casey City Council. Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Baldock, F. C., Alexander, L. and More, S. J., 2003. Estimated and predicted changes to the cat population of Australian households from 1979 to 2005. Australian Veterinary Journal 81: 289-292.
Barratt, D. G., 1994. Using theory and scientific experience to assess the impact of house-based domestic cats Felis catus (L) on prey populations and prey community structure. 3rd Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Barratt, D. G., 1995. Ecological impact of domestic cats. Pp. 181-187 in People and nature conservation: perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery, edited by A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Barratt, D. G., 1997. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L ) in Canberra, Australia. I. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research 24: 263-277.
Barratt, D. G., 1998. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L) in Canberra, Australia. II. Factors affecting the amount of prey caught and estimates of the impact on wildlife. Wildlife Research 25: 475-487.
Bomford, M., Newsome, A., and O'Brien, P., 1995. Solutions to feral animal problems: ecological and economic principles. Pp. 202-09 in Conserving Biodiversity: Threats and Solutions, edited by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney, and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Burbidge, A. A. and Manly, B. F. J., 2002. Mammal extinctions on Australian islands: causes and conservation implications. Journal of Biogeography 29: 465-473.
Buttriss, R., 2001. No cat zone - City of Kingston. Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Calver, M. C. and Dell, J., 1998. Conservation status of mammals and birds in south-western Australian forests. I. Is there evidence of direct links between forestry practices and species decline and extinction? Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 296-314.
Calver, M. C., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W., 1999. Towards scientific contributions in applying the precautionary principle: an example from Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 63-72.
Chaseling, S., 2001. Pet populations in Australia. Dogs increasing and cats decreasing - why is it so? 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Melbourne. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Christensen, P. and Burrows, N., 1994. Project Desert Dreaming: experimental reintroduction of mammals to the Gibson Desert, Western Australia. Pp. 199-207 in Reintroduction biology of Australian and New Zealand fauna, edited by M. Serena. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Courchamp, F., Langlais, M. and Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 282-292.
Deville, A. and Harding, R. (eds), 1997 Applying the Precautionary Principle. The Federation Press, Sydney, New South Wales.
Dickman, C. R., 1996 Overview of the Impact of Feral Cats on the Australian Native Fauna. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Feral Cat Coalition, 2001. http://www.feralcat.com/
Fougere, B., 2000. Cats and wildlife in the urban environment - a review. 9th Urban Animal Management Conference, Hobart. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Gillies, C. and Clout, M., 2003. The prey of domestic cats ( Felis catus) in two suburbs of Auckland City, New Zealand. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 309-315.
Grayson, J., Calver, M. C. and Styles, I., 2002. Suburban West Australians support most aspects of cat control legislation. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 536-543.
Hartwell, S., 1994. The great Australian cat dilemma. http://www.feralcat.com/sarah1.html Accessed 18/12/01.
Headey, B., 1999. Health benefits and health cost savings due to pets: Preliminary estimates from an Australian national survey. Social Indicators Research 47: 233-243.
How, R. A. and Dell, J., 2000. Ground vertebrate fauna of Perth's vegetation remnants: impact of 170 years of urbanization. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 198-217.
Jackson, V., 1999. Making sure there is room for pets in our society in the next millennium - providing for, not preventing, pet access. 8th Urban Animal Management Conference, Gold Coast. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Kelly, D., 1999. The power of the retrospective - cat legislation: what precisely did we learn in South Australia? 8th Urban Animal Management Conference, Gold Coast. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Kruger, F. J., van Wilgen, B. W., Weaver, A. v. B. and Greyling, T., 1997. Sustainable development and the environment: lessons from the St Lucia environmental impact assessment. South African Journal of Science 93: 23-33.
Mangosi, S., 1999 Contributions of the Pet Care Industry to the Australian Economy. BIS Shrapnel Global Marketing Intelligence and Forecasting: Melbourne.
McGreevy, P. D., Fougere, B., Collins, H., Bartimote, K. M. and Thomson, P. C., 2002. Effect of declining owned-cat population on veterinary practices in Sydney. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 739-745.
McHarg, M., Baldock, C., Headey, B. and Robinson, A. 1995. National people and pets survey. Urban Animal Management Coalition. http://www.petnet.com.au/People_and_Pets/52UAMR.HTML
McPartland, B., 1999. Microchipping - why worry? Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 762.
Mooney, N. 2001-2002. Native pets: an unnatural disaster. Nature Australia 26(8): 84.
Moore, S., 2001. Cat confinement - does it work? Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Murray, R. W. and Penridge, H. E. (eds). 1997 Dogs and Cats in the Urban Environment. A Handbook of Municipal Pet Management. Chiron Media, Mooloolah, Australia. http://www.petnet.com.au/dcue/index.htm
Murray, R., Scriggins, S., Bowman, D. and Speare, R. 1999. Cat management for Magnetic Island. 8th Urban Animal Management Conference, Gold Coast. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Nattrass, R. 1992. Wildlife conservation in the urban environment: are pets a threat? 1st Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Norton, T. W. and May, S. A., 1994. Towards sustainable forestry in Australian temperate eucalypt forests: Ecological impacts and priorities for conservation, research and management. Pp. 10-30 in Ecology and sustainability of southern temperate ecosystems, edited by T. W. Norton and S. R. Dovers, CSIRO Publications
Paton, D. C. 1991. Loss of wildlife to domestic cats. Pp. 64-69 in The impact of cats on native wildlife, edited by C. Potter. Workshop Proceedings facilitated by the Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Unit, Canberra.
Paton, D. C. 1993. Impacts of domestic and feral cats on wildlife. Pp. 9-15 in: Cat Management Workshop Proceedings, edited by G. Siepen and C. Owens. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Penson, P. 1995. Victorian cat legislation. 4th Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Pergl, G. 1994. The Sherbrooke cat law - does it work? 3rd Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Perry, G. 1999. Cats - perceptions and misconceptions: two recent studies about cats and how people see them. 8th Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Pert, T. A., 2001. NSW Companion Animals Act 1998. Funding - is it adequate for animal management? Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
REARK 1994a The Metropolitan Domestic Cat. A Survey of the Population Characteristics and Hunting Behaviour of the Domestic Cat in Australia. Petcare Information and Advisory Services, Melbourne. Ref: CM-5946-TH/JM http://www.petnet.com.au/reark/reark.html
REARK 1994b The Cat in the Suburbs Survey in Sydney and Melbourne. Petcare Information and Advisory Services, Melbourne. Ref: CM-5897-TH/JM
Risbey, D. A. 2000 The Impact of Cats and Foxes on Small Terrestrial Vertebrates and the Control of Feral Cats at Heirisson Prong. Ph D thesis. Murdoch University: Perth, Western Australia.
Risbey, D. A., Calver, M. C. and Short, J. 1999. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia: I. Exploring potential impacts using diet analysis. Wildlife Research 25: 621-630.
Risbey, D. A., Calver, M. C., Short, J., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W. 2000. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia: II. A field experiment. Wildlife Research 27: 223-235.
Rogers, K., 1999. Pet owners duped? Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 762.
Roost, H. P., Kunzli, N., Schindler, C., Jarvis, D., Chinn, S., Perruchoud, A. P., Ackermann-Liebrich, U., Burney, P. and Wuthrich, B. 1999. Role of current and childhood exposure to cat and atopic sensitization. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 104: 941-947.
Ruxton, G. D., Thomas, S. and Wright, J. W., 2002. Bells reduce predation of wildlife by domestic cats ( Felis catus). Journal of Zoology (London) 256: 81-83.
Santillo, D., Stringer, R. L., Johnson, P. A. and Tickner, J., 1998. The precautionary principle: protecting against failures of scientific method and risk assessment. Mar. Poll. Bull. 36: 939-950.
Scheele, M., 2001. Cat pounds - Manningham City Council perspective. Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Shirley, C., 1999. Why not declaw cats? Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 132.
Stokes, R., 1999. Declawing cats - ludicrous. Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 269.
Tidemann, C. 1994. Do cats impact on wildlife? 3rd Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Trueman, P., 1991 The Impact of Domestic and Semi-domestic Cats on the Wildlife of South Tasmania, Hobart, Australia. Unpublished Honours thesis, University of Tasmania.
Twain, M., 1964 Pudd'nhead Wilson. American Library of World Literature, Incorporated, New York. (First published 1894).
Van Dyke, S. 2001-2002. Sex to die for. Nature Australia 27(3): 20-21.
Winter, L. 1999. Cats indoors! Earth Island Journal 41(2): 25
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References

American Bird Conservancy Group, 1997. Human attitudes and behavior regarding cats. http://www.abcbirds.org/index.htm
American Bird Conservancy Group, 2001. Cats indoors! The campaign for safer birds and cats. http://www.abcbirds.org/cats/catsindoors.htm
Anderson, A. P., Reid, C. M. and Jennings, G. L., 1992. Is pet ownership good for your heart? The results of a survey of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Melbourne, Australia. Proceedings of the 1st Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Anderson, I., 1994. Should the cat take the rap? New Scientist (21 May): 13-14.
Anonymous, 1999. NSW Companion Animals Act.Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 424.
Archer, M., 2000. Monstrous moggies or charming chuditches? Nature Australia 26(8): 70-71.
Baker, D., 2001. Cat curfew - Casey City Council. Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Baldock, F. C., Alexander, L. and More, S. J., 2003. Estimated and predicted changes to the cat population of Australian households from 1979 to 2005. Australian Veterinary Journal 81: 289-292.
Barratt, D. G., 1994. Using theory and scientific experience to assess the impact of house-based domestic cats Felis catus (L) on prey populations and prey community structure. 3rd Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Barratt, D. G., 1995. Ecological impact of domestic cats. Pp. 181-187 in People and nature conservation: perspectives on private land use and endangered species recovery, edited by A. Bennett, G. Backhouse and T. Clark. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman, NSW.
Barratt, D. G., 1997. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L ) in Canberra, Australia. I. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research 24: 263-277.
Barratt, D. G., 1998. Predation by house cats Felis catus (L) in Canberra, Australia. II. Factors affecting the amount of prey caught and estimates of the impact on wildlife. Wildlife Research 25: 475-487.
Bomford, M., Newsome, A., and O'Brien, P., 1995. Solutions to feral animal problems: ecological and economic principles. Pp. 202-09 in Conserving Biodiversity: Threats and Solutions, edited by R. A. Bradstock, T. D. Auld, D. A. Keith, R. T. Kingsford, D. Lunney, and D. P. Sivertsen. Surrey Beatty & Sons: Chipping Norton, NSW.
Burbidge, A. A. and Manly, B. F. J., 2002. Mammal extinctions on Australian islands: causes and conservation implications. Journal of Biogeography 29: 465-473.
Buttriss, R., 2001. No cat zone - City of Kingston. Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Calver, M. C. and Dell, J., 1998. Conservation status of mammals and birds in south-western Australian forests. I. Is there evidence of direct links between forestry practices and species decline and extinction? Pacific Conservation Biology 4: 296-314.
Calver, M. C., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W., 1999. Towards scientific contributions in applying the precautionary principle: an example from Western Australia. Pacific Conservation Biology 5: 63-72.
Chaseling, S., 2001. Pet populations in Australia. Dogs increasing and cats decreasing - why is it so? 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Melbourne. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Christensen, P. and Burrows, N., 1994. Project Desert Dreaming: experimental reintroduction of mammals to the Gibson Desert, Western Australia. Pp. 199-207 in Reintroduction biology of Australian and New Zealand fauna, edited by M. Serena. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, New South Wales.
Courchamp, F., Langlais, M. and Sugihara, G., 1999. Cats protecting birds: modelling the mesopredator release effect. Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 282-292.
Deville, A. and Harding, R. (eds), 1997 Applying the Precautionary Principle. The Federation Press, Sydney, New South Wales.
Dickman, C. R., 1996 Overview of the Impact of Feral Cats on the Australian Native Fauna. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra.
Feral Cat Coalition, 2001. http://www.feralcat.com/
Fougere, B., 2000. Cats and wildlife in the urban environment - a review. 9th Urban Animal Management Conference, Hobart. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Gillies, C. and Clout, M., 2003. The prey of domestic cats ( Felis catus) in two suburbs of Auckland City, New Zealand. Journal of Zoology (London) 259: 309-315.
Grayson, J., Calver, M. C. and Styles, I., 2002. Suburban West Australians support most aspects of cat control legislation. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 536-543.
Hartwell, S., 1994. The great Australian cat dilemma. http://www.feralcat.com/sarah1.html Accessed 18/12/01.
Headey, B., 1999. Health benefits and health cost savings due to pets: Preliminary estimates from an Australian national survey. Social Indicators Research 47: 233-243.
How, R. A. and Dell, J., 2000. Ground vertebrate fauna of Perth's vegetation remnants: impact of 170 years of urbanization. Pacific Conservation Biology 6: 198-217.
Jackson, V., 1999. Making sure there is room for pets in our society in the next millennium - providing for, not preventing, pet access. 8th Urban Animal Management Conference, Gold Coast. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Kelly, D., 1999. The power of the retrospective - cat legislation: what precisely did we learn in South Australia? 8th Urban Animal Management Conference, Gold Coast. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Kruger, F. J., van Wilgen, B. W., Weaver, A. v. B. and Greyling, T., 1997. Sustainable development and the environment: lessons from the St Lucia environmental impact assessment. South African Journal of Science 93: 23-33.
Mangosi, S., 1999 Contributions of the Pet Care Industry to the Australian Economy. BIS Shrapnel Global Marketing Intelligence and Forecasting: Melbourne.
McGreevy, P. D., Fougere, B., Collins, H., Bartimote, K. M. and Thomson, P. C., 2002. Effect of declining owned-cat population on veterinary practices in Sydney. Australian Veterinary Journal 80: 739-745.
McHarg, M., Baldock, C., Headey, B. and Robinson, A. 1995. National people and pets survey. Urban Animal Management Coalition. http://www.petnet.com.au/People_and_Pets/52UAMR.HTML
McPartland, B., 1999. Microchipping - why worry? Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 762.
Mooney, N. 2001-2002. Native pets: an unnatural disaster. Nature Australia 26(8): 84.
Moore, S., 2001. Cat confinement - does it work? Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Murray, R. W. and Penridge, H. E. (eds). 1997 Dogs and Cats in the Urban Environment. A Handbook of Municipal Pet Management. Chiron Media, Mooloolah, Australia. http://www.petnet.com.au/dcue/index.htm
Murray, R., Scriggins, S., Bowman, D. and Speare, R. 1999. Cat management for Magnetic Island. 8th Urban Animal Management Conference, Gold Coast. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Nattrass, R. 1992. Wildlife conservation in the urban environment: are pets a threat? 1st Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Norton, T. W. and May, S. A., 1994. Towards sustainable forestry in Australian temperate eucalypt forests: Ecological impacts and priorities for conservation, research and management. Pp. 10-30 in Ecology and sustainability of southern temperate ecosystems, edited by T. W. Norton and S. R. Dovers, CSIRO Publications
Paton, D. C. 1991. Loss of wildlife to domestic cats. Pp. 64-69 in The impact of cats on native wildlife, edited by C. Potter. Workshop Proceedings facilitated by the Endangered Species Unit, Australian National Parks and Wildlife Unit, Canberra.
Paton, D. C. 1993. Impacts of domestic and feral cats on wildlife. Pp. 9-15 in: Cat Management Workshop Proceedings, edited by G. Siepen and C. Owens. Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage.
Penson, P. 1995. Victorian cat legislation. 4th Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Pergl, G. 1994. The Sherbrooke cat law - does it work? 3rd Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Perry, G. 1999. Cats - perceptions and misconceptions: two recent studies about cats and how people see them. 8th Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Pert, T. A., 2001. NSW Companion Animals Act 1998. Funding - is it adequate for animal management? Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
REARK 1994a The Metropolitan Domestic Cat. A Survey of the Population Characteristics and Hunting Behaviour of the Domestic Cat in Australia. Petcare Information and Advisory Services, Melbourne. Ref: CM-5946-TH/JM http://www.petnet.com.au/reark/reark.html
REARK 1994b The Cat in the Suburbs Survey in Sydney and Melbourne. Petcare Information and Advisory Services, Melbourne. Ref: CM-5897-TH/JM
Risbey, D. A. 2000 The Impact of Cats and Foxes on Small Terrestrial Vertebrates and the Control of Feral Cats at Heirisson Prong. Ph D thesis. Murdoch University: Perth, Western Australia.
Risbey, D. A., Calver, M. C. and Short, J. 1999. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia: I. Exploring potential impacts using diet analysis. Wildlife Research 25: 621-630.
Risbey, D. A., Calver, M. C., Short, J., Bradley, J. S. and Wright, I. W. 2000. The impact of cats and foxes on the small vertebrate fauna of Heirisson Prong, Western Australia: II. A field experiment. Wildlife Research 27: 223-235.
Rogers, K., 1999. Pet owners duped? Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 762.
Roost, H. P., Kunzli, N., Schindler, C., Jarvis, D., Chinn, S., Perruchoud, A. P., Ackermann-Liebrich, U., Burney, P. and Wuthrich, B. 1999. Role of current and childhood exposure to cat and atopic sensitization. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 104: 941-947.
Ruxton, G. D., Thomas, S. and Wright, J. W., 2002. Bells reduce predation of wildlife by domestic cats ( Felis catus). Journal of Zoology (London) 256: 81-83.
Santillo, D., Stringer, R. L., Johnson, P. A. and Tickner, J., 1998. The precautionary principle: protecting against failures of scientific method and risk assessment. Mar. Poll. Bull. 36: 939-950.
Scheele, M., 2001. Cat pounds - Manningham City Council perspective. Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference, Brisbane. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Shirley, C., 1999. Why not declaw cats? Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 132.
Stokes, R., 1999. Declawing cats - ludicrous. Australian Veterinary Journal 77: 269.
Tidemann, C. 1994. Do cats impact on wildlife? 3rd Urban Animal Management Conference. http://www.ava.com.au/content/confer/uam/proceed%20intro.htm
Trueman, P., 1991 The Impact of Domestic and Semi-domestic Cats on the Wildlife of South Tasmania, Hobart, Australia. Unpublished Honours thesis, University of Tasmania.
Twain, M., 1964 Pudd'nhead Wilson. American Library of World Literature, Incorporated, New York. (First published 1894).
Van Dyke, S. 2001-2002. Sex to die for. Nature Australia 27(3): 20-21.
Winter, L. 1999. Cats indoors! Earth Island Journal 41(2): 25
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