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Deer were introduced into Australia by acclimatisation societies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to enhance the aesthetics of the local environment and provide sport. Several of these populations survived and formed the basis of larger, well established wild deer populations. Deer were also introduced by farmers in the late 20th century through the release of animals during poor climatic and economic conditions and through their escape from poorly-maintained farms. In addition, hunters and hunting agencies have released deer into the wild in the late 20th century for trophy development. As a consequence, Fallow, Red, Sambar, Chital, Rusa and Hog deer have formed wild populations in many habitats, ranging from arid woodland to rainforest. The alarming increase in the number of wild deer over the last three decades, and the continued expansion of Australia's urban areas, has seen the development of conflicts between wild deer and people. Disagreement and politics among the wild deer stakeholder groups and a lack of knowledge of deer ecology, impacts and management techniques by government agency land managers continues to impede the effective management of urban deer populations in Australia despite the potential for deer species to become important pests.

Akasi, N. and Nakashisuka, T. 1999. Effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon) on population dynamics of a mixed forest in Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 113: 75-82.
Anon. 1904 Report to the Legislative Assembly of NSW on the activities of the National Park Trust. from 1 July 1904 to 30 June 1906. National Park Trust, Sydney, NSW.
Anon. 2000a Royal National Park Deer Management Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sutherland.
Anon. 2000b Feral deer Policy. Plant and Animal Control Commission of South Australia, Adelaide.
Anon. 2001 Wild deer in Northland, a 10 year eradication plan. Department of Conservation, NZ, Northland Conservancy, Christchurch.
Anon. 2002a Sydney South Region pest management strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sutherland.
Anon. 2002b Mid-North Coast Region pest management strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Port Macquarie.
Bentley, A. 1998 An introduction to the deer of Australia. The Koetong Trust Fund and the Forest Commission of Victoria: Melbourne.
Caughley, G. 1983 The Deer Wars. Heinemann Publishing: Auckland.
English, A. W. 2001 A management plan for feral horses in Guy Fawkes River National Park. A report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au
Fraser, K. W., Parkes, J. P. and Thomson C. 2001 Management of new deer populations in Northland and Taranaki. Landcare Research Report, September 2001, Lincoln, NZ.
Frith, H. J. 1973 Wildlife Conservation. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Geist, V. 1999 Deer of the World: their evolution, behaviour and ecology. Swan Hill Press: Shrewsbury.
Glover, A. 2000 Deer oh deer. Conference paper, 1st NSW pest animal control conference, Orange NSW October 12-14, 2000.
Goldstein, W. 1976 Royal National Park teaching and information guide. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Harrison, M. and Slee, K. 1995. The Australian deer hunters handbook. Australian Deer Research Foundation Ltd: Melbourne.
Kareiva, P. 2001 Roads and ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(8): 430-431.
Krausman, P. 1998. Conflicting views of ungulate management in North America's western national parks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(2): 369-371.
Low, T. 1999 Feral Future: the untold story of Australia's exotic invaders. Penguin Books: Melbourne.
MacDonald, I. 1995 The complete deer farming guide. Gippsland Printers Pty Ltd: Victoria.
Martinez, A., Hewit, D. G. and Correa, M. C. 1997. Managing overabundant white-tailed deer in northern Mexico. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 25 (2): 430-32.
McKnight, T. 1976 Friendly vermin: A survey of feral livestock in Australia. University of California Press: London.
McNulty, S. A., Porter, W. F., Mathews, N. E. and Hill, JA 1997. Localised management for reducing white-tailed deer populations. Wildlife society bulletin. 25 (2): 267-271.
McShea, W. J. and Rappole J. H. 1997. The science and politics of managing deer within a protected area. Wildlife Society Bulletin: 25(2): 443-446.
McShea, W. J., Underwood H. B. and Rappole J. H. 1997 The Science of overabundance: deer ecology and population management. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington, London.
Moore, N. P., Hart, J. D. and Langton, S. D. 1999. Factors influencing browsing by fallow deer ( Dama dama) in young broad-leaved plantations. Biological Conservation. 87: 255-260.
Moriarty, A. J. In prep. The ecology and environmental impact of Rusa deer ( Cervus timorensis) in Royal NP. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Nugent, G. 1988. Successful control of fallow deer by recreational hunters in the Blue Mountains, Otago. New Zealand Journal of forestry Science 18 (3): 239-251.
Nugent, G. and Fraser, K. W. 1993. Pests or valued resource? Conflicts in deer management. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 20: 361-366.
Olsen, P 1998 Australia's pest animals; new solutions to old problems. Bureau of Resource Sciences and Kangaroo Press, Canberra.
Rolls, E. C. 1969 They All Ran Wild. Angus and Robertson: Sydney, NSW.
Strahan, R. (ed.) 1995 The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Chatswood.
Tuckwell, C. 2001 Deer: quality assurance, strategic alliances and industry development: a report for the Rural Industries Development Corporation. Rural Industries Development Corporation, Barton, ACT.
Whitehead, G. K. 1993 The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer. Swan Hill Press: Shrewsbury, England.
Whitehead, G. K. 1972 Deer of the world. Constable and Cop Ltd: London.
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References

Akasi, N. and Nakashisuka, T. 1999. Effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon) on population dynamics of a mixed forest in Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 113: 75-82.
Anon. 1904 Report to the Legislative Assembly of NSW on the activities of the National Park Trust. from 1 July 1904 to 30 June 1906. National Park Trust, Sydney, NSW.
Anon. 2000a Royal National Park Deer Management Strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sutherland.
Anon. 2000b Feral deer Policy. Plant and Animal Control Commission of South Australia, Adelaide.
Anon. 2001 Wild deer in Northland, a 10 year eradication plan. Department of Conservation, NZ, Northland Conservancy, Christchurch.
Anon. 2002a Sydney South Region pest management strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sutherland.
Anon. 2002b Mid-North Coast Region pest management strategy. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Port Macquarie.
Bentley, A. 1998 An introduction to the deer of Australia. The Koetong Trust Fund and the Forest Commission of Victoria: Melbourne.
Caughley, G. 1983 The Deer Wars. Heinemann Publishing: Auckland.
English, A. W. 2001 A management plan for feral horses in Guy Fawkes River National Park. A report to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, www.nationalparks.nsw.gov.au
Fraser, K. W., Parkes, J. P. and Thomson C. 2001 Management of new deer populations in Northland and Taranaki. Landcare Research Report, September 2001, Lincoln, NZ.
Frith, H. J. 1973 Wildlife Conservation. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
Geist, V. 1999 Deer of the World: their evolution, behaviour and ecology. Swan Hill Press: Shrewsbury.
Glover, A. 2000 Deer oh deer. Conference paper, 1st NSW pest animal control conference, Orange NSW October 12-14, 2000.
Goldstein, W. 1976 Royal National Park teaching and information guide. NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville.
Harrison, M. and Slee, K. 1995. The Australian deer hunters handbook. Australian Deer Research Foundation Ltd: Melbourne.
Kareiva, P. 2001 Roads and ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(8): 430-431.
Krausman, P. 1998. Conflicting views of ungulate management in North America's western national parks. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(2): 369-371.
Low, T. 1999 Feral Future: the untold story of Australia's exotic invaders. Penguin Books: Melbourne.
MacDonald, I. 1995 The complete deer farming guide. Gippsland Printers Pty Ltd: Victoria.
Martinez, A., Hewit, D. G. and Correa, M. C. 1997. Managing overabundant white-tailed deer in northern Mexico. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 25 (2): 430-32.
McKnight, T. 1976 Friendly vermin: A survey of feral livestock in Australia. University of California Press: London.
McNulty, S. A., Porter, W. F., Mathews, N. E. and Hill, JA 1997. Localised management for reducing white-tailed deer populations. Wildlife society bulletin. 25 (2): 267-271.
McShea, W. J. and Rappole J. H. 1997. The science and politics of managing deer within a protected area. Wildlife Society Bulletin: 25(2): 443-446.
McShea, W. J., Underwood H. B. and Rappole J. H. 1997 The Science of overabundance: deer ecology and population management. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington, London.
Moore, N. P., Hart, J. D. and Langton, S. D. 1999. Factors influencing browsing by fallow deer ( Dama dama) in young broad-leaved plantations. Biological Conservation. 87: 255-260.
Moriarty, A. J. In prep. The ecology and environmental impact of Rusa deer ( Cervus timorensis) in Royal NP. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney, Richmond.
Nugent, G. 1988. Successful control of fallow deer by recreational hunters in the Blue Mountains, Otago. New Zealand Journal of forestry Science 18 (3): 239-251.
Nugent, G. and Fraser, K. W. 1993. Pests or valued resource? Conflicts in deer management. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 20: 361-366.
Olsen, P 1998 Australia's pest animals; new solutions to old problems. Bureau of Resource Sciences and Kangaroo Press, Canberra.
Rolls, E. C. 1969 They All Ran Wild. Angus and Robertson: Sydney, NSW.
Strahan, R. (ed.) 1995 The Mammals of Australia. Reed Books, Chatswood.
Tuckwell, C. 2001 Deer: quality assurance, strategic alliances and industry development: a report for the Rural Industries Development Corporation. Rural Industries Development Corporation, Barton, ACT.
Whitehead, G. K. 1993 The Whitehead Encyclopedia of Deer. Swan Hill Press: Shrewsbury, England.
Whitehead, G. K. 1972 Deer of the world. Constable and Cop Ltd: London.
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